. () . .

( )

28

4


()

2003

-

-:

.. ( 1, 2), .. ( 12), .. ( 1, 2, 4), .. ( 7), .. ( 8), .. ( 11), .. ( 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 12), .. ( 1, 2), .. ( 4), .. ( 6), .. ( 3, 10, 12), .. ( 6), .. ( 5), .. ( 1, 2), .. ( 7)

. () . : . 28. 4 / .. - .: - , 2003.

() , , .

. , , , . .

- ( ) - ( 19.03.01 32)

. 3

1. . 4

. 4

. 6

. 7

1 . 8

1 . 9

2. .. 10

.. 12

2 . 15

2 . 17

3. . 17

3 . 28

3 . 32

4. . 32

4.1. . 32

4.2. . 34

4.3. .. 37

4.5. , .. 49

4.6. . 58

4.7. . 59

4.8. . 63

4.9. .. 67

4.10. . 73

4.11. . 75

4.12. . 77

4 . 82

4 . 96

4 . 111

5. . 112

5 . 124

6. () 128

6 . 134

7. . 136

.. 136

. 142

. 143

. 147

. 149

7 . 153

8. () 160

. 160

. 161

8 . 163

9. - . 165

.. 165

.. 166

.. 169

. 170

9 . 171

9 . 174

10. , . 174

10 . 179

11. . 181

11 . 191

12. . 194

. 194

. 195

. 198

. 198

. 199

12 . 200

() , . , , , , , , .

, , . , , ( ). , ( ), . . , , , , , , .

, , . . , , .

- , , , .

- (), (, ). , , , , , .

( ) , . , .

:

1 . .

2 . .

3 . .

4 . .

5 . .

6 . ().

7 . .

8 . ().

9 . - .

10 . , .

11 . .

12 . .

, ( ), ( ) . , , ( ). , . . , .

, , ().

. , .

1 .

1.1 . ( Safety of a transactions ) - , [1].

1.2 . ( Safety of an industrial equipment ) - , - [ 1 ].

1.3 . ( Safety precautions ) - , [ 1 ].

1.4 . ( Industrial safety of hazardous production facilities ) - [ 2 ].

1.5 . ( Industrial safety expertise ) - , [ 3 ].

1.6 . ( Objects of expertise ) - , , , , [ 3 ].

1.7 . ( Expert organisation ) - , [ 3 ].

1.8 . ( Expert ) - , [ 3 ].

1.9 . ( Quality ) - , [ 4 ].

1.10 . () ( Normative parameters of quality ) - .

1.11 . ( Technological process ) - , () [ 5 ].

1.12 . ( Production ) - , [ 6 ].

1.13 . ( Up state ) - , , , () () [ 7 ].

1.14 . ( Industrial catastrophe ) - , , , , [ 8 ].

1.15 . ( Accident ) - () , , () [ 2 ].

1.16 . ( Incident ) - , , , , , [ 2 ].

1.17 . ( Unnominal situation ) - , [ 9 ].

1.18 . ( Failure ) - , [ 7 ].

1.19 . ( Refusal ) - , [ 7 ].

1.20 . ( Failure criterion ) - , () () [ 7 ].

1.21 . ( Limiting condition ) - , [ 7 ].

1.22 . ( Criterion of a limiting condition ) - , ( ) [ 7 ]*.

* * : , .

1.23 . ( Lifetime ) - [ 7 ].

1.24 . ( Residual life ) - [ 7 ].

1.25 . ( Technical standard ) - , , , [ 10 ]*.

. .

1.26 . ( Specification ) - , , , [ 10 ].

1.27 . ( Standard ) - , , , , , , , . , , , [ 15 ].

1.28 . ( National standard ) - , [ 10 ].

1.29 . ( State standard of Russian Federation ) - , [ 10 ].

1.30 . ( International standard ) - , , , [ 10 ].

1.31 . ( Branch standard ) - , [ 10 ].

1.32 . ( Standard of the enterprise ) - , [ 10 ].

1.33 . ( Harmonized standards ) - , , , , [ 10 ].

1.34 . ( Unified standards ) - , [ 10 ].

1.35 . ( Identical standards ) - , , [ 10 ].

1.36 . ( Certificate of conformance ) - , , , [ 10 ].

1.37 . - , , , [ 10 ].

1.38 . ( Instruction ) - , , [ 10 ].

1.39 . ( Recommendation ) - , [ 10 ].

1.40 . - , , [ 10 ].

1.41 . - , [ 10 ].

1.42 . - , , , , , , (, , , , , , , ) [ 15 ].

1.43 . ( Technical rules ) - , , , , [ 10 ].

1.44 . - , , , , , [ 10 ].

1.45 . [, , ] - , - () , , [, , ], [ 10 ].

1.46 . [, , ] - , - () , , [, , ], [ 10 ].

1.47 . - , , [ 10 ].

1.48 . ( Technical diagnostics ) - , , [ 11 ].

1.49 . ( Technical diagnosis ) - [ 11 ].

1.50 . () ( Test parameter ) - , () [ 11 ].

1.51 . ( Technical condition of an object ) - , , , [ 11 ].

1.52 . ( Testing condition , inspection ) - [ 11 ].

. , , , , , .. [ 11 ].

1.53 . ( Technical condition prediction ) - [ 11 ].

1.54 . ( Measurement ) - [ 12 ].

1.55 . ( Measuring equipment ) - , [ 13 ].

1.56 . ( Calibration ) - , () , [ 13 ].

1.57 . ( Government inspection ) - , (), [ 13 ].

1.58 . ( Test ) - () , () [ 10 ].

1.59 . ( Test program ) - - , , , , , , , , [ 14 ]*.

1

( Accident ) 1.15

( Safety of an industrial equipment ) 1.2

( Safety of a transactions ) 1.1

( Harmonized standards ) 1.33

(State standard of Russian Federation) 1.29

() ( Test parameter ) 1.50

(Identical standards) 1.35

(Measurement) 1.54

(Instruction) 1.38

( Incident ) 1.16

( Test ) 1.58

( Calibration ) 1.56

( Quality ) 1.9

1.44

( Testing condition , inspection ) 1.52

( Failure criterion ) 1.20

( Criterion of a limiting condition ) 1.22

( International standard ) 1.30

1.41

( National standard ) 1.28

(Unnominal situation) 1.17

() ( Normative parameters of quality ) 1.10

( Technical standard ) 1.25

(Objects of expertise) 1.6

( Residual life ) 1.24

( Failure ) 1.18

( Government inspection ) 1.57

1.37

[, , ] 1.45

( Limiting condition ) 1.21

( Technical condition prediction ) 1.53

( Test program ) 1.59

( Production ) 1.12

(Industrial safety of hazardous production facilities) 1.4

( Industrial catastrophe ) 1.14

( Up state ) 1.13

1.42

[, , ] 1.46

(Recommendation) 1.39

(Refusal) 1.19

(Certificate of conformance) 1.36

( Measuring equipment ) 1.55

1.47

( Lifetime ) 1.23

(Standard) 1.27

(Branch standard) 1.31

(Standard of the enterprise) 1.32

( Safety precautions ) 1.3

( Technical diagnostics ) 1.48

( Technical rules ) 1.43

( Technical diagnosis ) 1.49

(Technical condition of an object) 1.51

( Specification ) 1.26

( Technological process ) 1.11

1.40

( Unified standards ) 1.34

( Expert ) 1.8

( Industrial safety expertise ) 1.5

( Expert organisation ) 1.7

1

1 . 12.0.002-80 . . .

2 . 21.07.97 116-.

3 . ( 03-246-98 ), 06.11.98 64.

4 . 8402 . : . ISO 8402:1994 (E/F/R).

5 . 3.1109-82 . . .

6 . 14.004-83 . . .

7 . 27.002-89 . . . .

8 . 22.0.05 . . .

9 . , ( 09-170-97 ), 22.12.97 52.

10 . 1.12-99 . . .

11 . 20911-89 . . .

12 . 16263-70 . . .

13 . 27.04.93 4871-1.

14 . 16504-81 . . . .

15 . 27.12.02 184- ( . 52. . 1. . 5140).

2 .

2.1 . ( NDT ) - , , [ 1 ].

2.2 . ( NDT system ) - , , , , , , [ 2 ].

2.3 . ( Outcome of NDT ) - , .

2.4 . ( Object of NDT ) - , , .

2.5 . ( Amount of NDT ) - , ( : , , ) () .

2.6 . ( NDT method ) - , , [ 3 , 5 ]*.

2.7 . ( Kind of NDT ) - , [ 3 ].

. :

) , ;

) ;

) ;

) ;

) .

2.8 . ( Suitability to testing ) - , , [ 4 ]*.

2.9 . ( NDT during manufacturing ) - , [ 5 ]*.

2.10 . ( In service NDT ) - , [ 5 ]*.

2.11 . ( NDT on an input ) - , [ 5 ]*.

2.12 . ( NDT on operations ) - [ 5 ]*.

2.13 . ( Acceptance NDT ) - , () [ 5 ]*.

2.14 . ( Full volume NDT ) - [ 5 ]*.

2.15 . ( Selective NDT ) - , [ 6 ]*.

2.16 . ( Measuring NDT ) - , [ 5 ]*.

2.17 . ( Equipment of NDT and technical diagnostics ) - , , , , .

2.18 . ( Test procedure ) - - , , , , , , , , [ 5 ]*.

2.19 . ( Technological procedure of NDT ) - , .

2.20 . ( Technological flow chart of NDT ) - (), .

2.21 . ( NDT conclusion ) - , , .

2.22 . ( Main parameters of NDT ) - , , .

2.23 . ( Reliability of NDT ) - ( ), .

2.24 . ( Sizing ) - .

2.25 . ( Real sensitivity ) - , .

. .

2.26 . ( Over reject ) - , .

2.27 . ( Missing ) - , .

2.28 . ( Main testing parameters ) - , .

2.29 . ( Spatial resolution ) - [ 4 ]*.

2.30 . / ( Signal to noise ratio ) - ( ) , , ( ) [ 4 ]*.

2.31 . ( NOT firm ) - (), , (), , [ 1 ].

2.32 . ( NDT employee ) - (), , .

2.33 . ( Independent agency ) - , , , .

2.34 . ( Personnel certification ) - ( 03-440-02 ) - () [ 7 ].

2.35 . ( Qualification ) - , , , , , [ 7 ].

2.36 . ( Qualifying certificate ) - , , , () [ 7 ].

2.37 . ( Defect ) - , [ 4 ].

2.38 . ( Rejected part ) - , .

2.39 . ( Rejected defect ) - , , .

2.40 . ( Defective item ) - , [ 8 ]*.

2.41 . ( Obvious defect ) - , , , , [ 8 ].

2.42 . ( Latent defect ) - , , , , [ 4 ].

2.43 . ( Critical defect ) - , [ 8 ].

2.44 . ( Significant defect ) - , () , [ 8 ].

2.45 . ( Insignificant defect ) - , [ 8 ].

2.46 . ( Corrected defect ) - , [ 8 ].

2.47 . ( Incorrigible defect ) - , [ 8 ].

2.48 . ( Defect indication ) - , () [ 4 ]*.

2.49 . ( Defect detection ) - [4]*.

2.50 . ( Defect evaluation ) - , , [ 4 ]*.

2.51 . ( False indication ) - , [ 4 ]*.

2.52 . ( Recording ) - , [ 4 ]*.

2.53 . ( Discontinuity ) - , - , , , ..

. : , , , ..

, , , , - (, ), .

2.54 . ( Crater ) - , [ 9 ].

2.55 . ( Crack ) - () [ 9 ].

2.56 . ( Branched crack ) - , [ 9 ].

2.57 . ( Shrinkage cavity ) - , [ 9 ].

2.58 . ( Root concavity ) - [ 9 ].

2.59 . ( Worm - hole ) - [ 9 ].

2.60 . ( Gas pore ) - , [ 9 ].

2.61 . ( Linear porosity ) - , [ 9 ].

2.62 . ( Lack of fusion ) - [ 9 ].

2.63 . ( Burn - through ) - , [ 9 ].

2.64 . ( Slag inclusion ) - [ 9 ].

2.65 . ( Non - metal inclusion ) - [ 9 ].

2.66 . ( Spatters ) - [ 9 ].

2.67 . ( Undercut ) - [ 9 ].

2.68 . ( Overlap ) - [ 9 ].

2.69 . ( Edge displacement ) - [ 9 ].

2.70 . ( Hot crack ) - , [ 10 ].

2.71 . ( Cold crack ) - [ 10 ].

2.72 . ( Intergranular crack ) - [ 10 ].

2.73 . ( Blowhole ) - , [ 10 ].

2.74 . ( Draw , contraction cavity ) - , , [ 10 ].

2.75 . ( Microporosity ) - [ 10 ].

2.76 . ( Chill hard spots ) - , , - [ 10 ].

2.77 . ( Mottleness ) - [ 10 ].

2.78 . ( Flakes ) - , [ 10 ].

2.79 . ( Hairline , spill ) - , [ 11 ].

2.80 . ( Delamination ) - , , , [ 11 ].

2.81 . ( Sliver , rolled scab ) - , , , , [ 11 ].

2.82 . ( Sliver , rolled skin ) - , , , , , , [ 11 ].

2.83 . ( Ridge ) - , , , [ 11 ].

2.84 . - , [ 11 ].

2.85 . ( Lap ) - , , , , [ 11 ].

2.86 . ( Forging fold ) - , , [ 11 ].

2.87 . ( Groove , guide mark ) - , [ 11 ].

2.88 . ( Burr ) - , , , , [ 11 ].

2.89 . ( Hacks ) - , [ 11 ].

2.90 . ( Grinding cracks ) - , , , , [ 11 ].

2.91 . ( Compression marks ) - , , , [ 11 ].

2.92 . ( Scratch ) - , , , [ 11 ].

2

(Personnel certification) 2.34

(Rejected part) 2.38

( Spatters ) 2.66

( Kind of NDT ) 2.7

(Compression marks) 2.91

(Root concavity) 2.58

(Hairline, spill) 2.79

( NDT on an input ) 2.11

( Selective NDT ) 2.15

( Blowhole ) 2.73

( Hot crack ) 2.70

( Defect ) 2.37

( Defective item ) 2.40

( Sizing ) 2.24

( Reliability of NDT ) 2.23

( Hacks ) 2.89

( Lap ) 2.85

HK ( NDT conclusion ) 2.21

(Forging foid) 2.86

(Burr) 2.88

(Significant defect) 2.44

( Measuring NDT ) 2.16

(Defect indication) 2.48

( Qualifying certificate ) 2.36

(Qualification) 2.35

(Suitability to testing) 2.8

(Crater) 2.54

(Critical defect) 2.43

HK (NDT firm) 2.31

(False indication) 2.51

(Insignificant defect) 2.45

(Intergranular crack) 2.72

( NDT method ) 2.6

( Test procedure ) 2.18

( Overlap ) 2.68

( Missing ) 2.27

( Rejected defect ) 2.39

( Independent agency ) 2.33

( Non - metal inclusion ) 2.65

(Lack of fusion) 2.62

( NDT ) 2.1

( Discontinuity ) 2.53

( Incorrigible defect ) 2.47

( Defect detection ) 2.49

( Object of NDT ) 2.4

( Amount of NDT ) 2.5

( NDT on operations ) 2.12

( Main testing parameters ) 2.28

( Main parameters of NDT ) 2.22

(Chill hard spots) 2.76

/ (Signal to noise ratio) 2.30

(Defect evaluation) 2.50

(Over reject) 2.26

2.84

( Undercut ) 2.67

( Mottleness ) 2.77

( Gas pore ) 2.60

( Acceptance NDT ) 2.13

(Burn-through) 2.63

( NDT during manufacturing ) 2.9

(Sliver, rolled skin) 2.82

( Spatial resolution ) 2.29

( Branched crack ) 2.56

( Delamination ) 2.80

( Real sensitivity ) 2.25

( Recording ) 2.52

( Outcome of NDT ) 2.3

(Groove, guide mark) 2.87

(Microporosity) 2.75

(Worm-hole) 2.59

( NDT system ) 2.2

(Latent defect) 2.42

(Sliver, rolled seab) 2.81

( Edge displacement ) 2.69

( NDT employee ) 2.32

( Full volume NDT ) 2.14

(Equipment of NDT and technical diagnostics) 2.17

(Technological procedure of NDT) 2.19

(Technological flow chart of NDT) 2.20

( Crack ) 2.55

(Ridge) 2.83

(Draw, contraction cavity) 2.74

( Shrinkage cavity ) 2.57

(Corrected defect) 2.46

(Flakes) 2.78

(Cold crack) 2.71

(Scratch) 2.92

(Linear porosity) 2.61

( Slag inclusion ) 2.64

( Grinding cracks ) 2.90

( In service NDT ) 2.10

(Obvious defect) 2.41

2

1 . // . : . 28. 1. 2- ., . . .: - , 2002. 104 .

2 . ( 03-372-00 ). // . : . 28. 1. 2- ., . . .: - , 2002. 104 .

3 . 18353-73. . .

4 . . , 1900-2000 .: / .. , .. , .. .; . .. . .: , 2001. 616 .

5 . 16504-81 . . . .

6 . 8402 . : . ISO 8402:1994 (E/F/R).

7 . // . : . 28. 3. .: - , 2002. 120 .

8 . 15467-79 . . . .

9 . 2601-84 . . .

10 . 19200-80 . . .

11 . 21014-88 . . .

3 .

3.1 . ( Radiation nondestructive testing ) - , .

: 1. ( Industrial radiology ) - -, .

2 . , , . . , (, , ..).

3.2 . - , .

. .

3.3 . - , , , .

. , , - .

3.4 . - , , () .

. , .

3.5 . - , .

3.6 . ( Primary radiation ) - , .

3.7 . - , .

3.8 . ( X - rays ) - 1-0,0001 , .

3.9 . ( Scattered radiation ) - , .

3.10 . ( Quality of beam of radiation ) - , .

3.1 1 . ( Build - up factor ) - , , , .

3.12 . ( Compton scatter ) - -, .

. 100 10 .

3.13 . - , , , .

3.14 . ( Narrow beam of ionizing radiation ) - , , - , .

3.15 . ( Broad beam of ionizing radiation ) - , , - , , .

3.16 . ( Build - up of ionizing radiation ) - ( , . .) .

3.17 . ( Radiation source ) - (, -), .

3.18 . ( Radiograph ) - , , . , , , ..

3.19 . ( Activity ) - .

3.20 . ( Radiation thickness ) - .

3.21 . ( Attenuation ) - - .

3.22 . ( Half value thickness ) - , , -, .

3.23 . μ ( Attenuation coefficient μ) - ( I 0 ) , , ( I ) ( t ), I = I 0 (-μ t ).

3.24 . ( Absorption ) - , .

3.25 . ( Average gradient ) - , .

3.26 . - , .

3.27 . - .

3.28 . - .

. [ 2] ( Incident beam axis ) - , .

3.29 . ( Focal spot ) - , , .

3.30 . ( Focal spot size ) - , .

3.31 . ( Effective focal spot of ionizing radiation source ) - , .

3.32 . - [ Focus - to - film distance ( ffd )] - .

. [ 2 ] - ( Source - to - film distance ) - , .

3.33 . - ( Object - to - film distance ) - , .

3.34 . ( Radiation image ) - , .

3.35 . ( Shadow radiation image ) - , .

3.36 . ( Light image ) - , , .

3.37 . ( Panoramic exposure ) - , - , , , .

3.38 . ( Radiogram ) - , .., .

3.39 . ( Fog density ) - , , , . , , , , .

3.40 . ( Exposure ) - , .

3.41 . ( Exposure calculator ) - (, ), .

3.42 . ( Exposure chart ) - , .

3.43 . ( Exposure latitude ) - , .

3.44 . ( Exposure time ) - .

3.45 . () [ Charasteristic curve ( of a film )] - , lg D .

3.46 . ( Radiographic film ) - , , , .

3.47 . ( Film base ) - , .

3.48 . ( Screen type film ) - , .

3.49 . ( Clearing time ) - , .

3.50 . ( G ) [ Film gradient ( G )] - D .

3.51 . ( Useful density range ) - , . , - .

3.52 . ( Ageing fog ) - , , .

3.53 . ( Beam angle ) - .

3.54 . ( Radiation image converter ) - .

3.55 . - ( Radiation - optical image converter ) - .

3.56 . ( Inherent filtration ) - , , .

3.57 . ( Unsharpness ) - - .

3.58 . - , () .

3.59 . - , , .

. [ 2 ] ( Geometric unsharpness ) - , - . - -. : .

3.60 . ( Inherent unsharpness ) - , , . , .

3.61 . ( Movement unsharpness ) - , ( ) , .

. [ 2 ] - - , .

3.62 . ( Spatial resolution ) - , .

3.63 . ( Collimation ) - , .

3.64 . ( Collimator ) - , , , , , .

3.65 . ( Source holder ) - , , - ( ) .

3.66 . ( Source size ) - .

3.67 . ( Contrast medium ) - , , .

3.68 . ( Radiation contrast ) - , - .

3.69 . ( Image contrast ) - .

3.70 . ( Object contrast ) - .

3.71 . ( Visual contrast ) - .

3.72 . , ( Contrast sensivity , thickness sensivity ) - , , .

3.73 . ( Image definition ) - .

3.74 . ( Image enhancement ) - , () . . .

3.75 . - , .

3.76 . ( Back scatter / back scattered radiation ) - -, , 90 .

3.77 . ( Image intensifier ) - , , , .

3.78 . ( Intensifying factor ) - .

3.79 . - ( Intensification factor ) - - .

3.80 . ( Image quality ) - , .

3.81 . ( IQI ) [ Image quality indicator ( IQI )] - , , . .

3.82 . , IQI ( Image quality value , IQI sensivity ) - , .

3.83 . - , ( ), .

3.84 . - 1 , , , .

. 1 , .

3.85 . ( Pressure marks ) - , , , .

3.86 . - , , .

3.87 . ( Projective magnification ) - .

3.88 . ( Projective magnification technique ) - , .

3.89 . - .

3.90 . - .

3.91 . - , .

. [ 2 ] ( ) [ artefact ( false indication )] - , , , , , .

3. 92 . ( Absolute sensitivity of radiation inspection ) - , .

3.93 . ( Relative sensitivity of radiation inspection ) - , .

3.94 . ( Sensitivity standard of radiation inspection ) - , - , .

3.95 . - , , .

3.96 . ( Duplex wire image quality indicator ) - , , .

3.97 . - , , .

3.98. - , , .

3.99. ( Radiography ) , .

3.100. - ( Gamma - radiography ) -.

3.101. - ( Gamma - rays ) , .

3.102. - ( Gamma - ray source ) , .

3.103. ( Radioisotope ) , , - .

3.104. ( Half life ) , .

3.105. ( Specific activity ) .

3.106. - ( Gamma - ray source container ) , , , , , .

3.107. , .

3.108. , .

3.109 . () [ Computerized tomography ()] - , , , , , .

. . .

3.110 . - , - , .

3.111 . - - , , .

3.112 . - - , , .

3.113 . - , , .

3.114 . - , , - .

3.115 . ( Radioscopy ) - , , , .

3.116 . - , .

3.117 . - , , .

3.118 . - , , , , .

. [ 2 ] ( Stereo radiography ) - , .

3.119 . - , .

3.120 . - , .

3.121 . - ( ) , , ( ), , .

3.122 . - , - .

. [ 2 ] ( Fluoroscopy ) - , , .

3.123 . - , , , , .

3.124 . ( Microfocus radiography ) - , - 100 . .

3.125 . - (), .

3.126 . ( Equalizing filter , beam flattener ) - , , .

3.127 . ( Edge - blocking material ) - , , .

3.128 . ( Blocking medium ) - , .

3.129 . - , .

3.130 . ( Filter ) - , , , .

3.131 . - , , .

3.132 . - , .

3.133 . - , .

3.134 . - - , , , - 1.

3.135 . - - , , , - ( ).

3.136 . ( Intensifying screen ) - , () , .

. [ 2 ] - ( Metal screen ) - , ( ), -.

3.137 . - - , .

3.138 . ( MTF ) [ Modulation transfer function ( MTF )] - .

3.139 . ( Latent image ) - , .

3.140 . - , .

. [ 2 ] [ Film illuminator ( viewing screen )] - , , .

3.141 . ( Viewing mask ) - , .

3.142 . ( Flaw sensivity ) - , .

3.143 . ( Film system speed ) - .

3.144 . - , () .

3.145 . - , - .

. [ 1] - .

3.146 . ( Fluorescent intensifying screen ) - , , -.

3.147 . ( Fluorometallic intensifying screen ) - , ( ), , -.

3.148 . ( LINAC ) [ Linear electron accelerator ( LINAC )] - . , .

3.149 . ( Betatron ) - , .

3.150 . - , - , .

3.151 . ( Dosemeter , dosimeter ) - -.

3.152 . ( Dose rate meter ) - -.

3.153 . ( Decay curve ) - , . , - .

3.154 . ( Densitometer ) - .

3.155 . ( Film processing ) - , , , , .

3.156 . ( ) ( Development of a film or paper ) - , .

3.157 . ( Fixing ) - .

3.158 . ( Graininess ) - .

3.159 . ( Granularity ) - , , .

3.160 . ( X - ray tube ) - , , , .

3.161 . ( Rod anode tube ) - , ; .

3.162 . ( Target ) - , .

3.163 . ( Dual focus tube ) - .

3.164 . ( Anode ) - .

3.165 . ( Cathode ) - .

3.166 . ( Tube dlafragm ) - , , , .

3.167 . ( Tube head ) - , .

3.168 . ( Equivalent X - ray voltage ) - , , -, -.

3.169 . ( Tube shield ) - , .

3.170 . ( Tube shutter ) - , , , .

3.171 . ( Tube window ) - , .

3.172 . ( Tube voltage ) - , .

3.173 . ( Unsealed source ) - , .

3.174 . ( Constant potential circuit ) - , .

3.175 . ( Diffraction mottle ) - , .

3.176 . ( Anode current ) - , .

3.177 . ( Continious spectrum ) - , .

3.178 . ( Cassette ) - .

3.179 . ( Vacuum cassette ) - , , .

3.180 . ( Calibrated density step wedge ) - , , .

3.181 . ( Step wedge ) - , .

3

(Absolute sensitivity of radiation inspection) 3.92

3.13

( Activity ) 3.19

(Anode) 3.164

(Anode current) 3.176

3.91

( Betatron ) 3.149

( Blocking medium ) 3.128

( Vacuum cassette ) 3.179

( Clearing time ) 3.49

3.7

( Ageing fog ) 3.52

3.121

- ( Gamma rays ) 3.101

- ( Gamma - radiography ) 3.100

3.59

3.90

(G) [Film gradient (G)] 3.50

(Granularity) 3.159

(Dual focus tube) 3.163

( Densitometer ) 3.154

( Source holder ) 3.65

3.132

( Tube diafragm ) 3.166

3.61

( Diffraction mottle ) 3.175

( Exposure time ) 3.44

(Dosemeter, dosimeter) 3.151

( Fixing ) 3.157

( Graininess ) 3.158

( Tube head ) 3.167

( Dose rate meter ) 3.152

( IQI ) [ Image quality indicator ( IQI )] 3.81

3.2

- ( Gamma - ray source ) 3.102

( Radiation source ) 3.17

( Calibrated density step wedge ) 3.180

( Exposure calculator ) 3.41

3.97

(Cassette) 3.178

(Cathode) 3.165

(Quality of beam of radiation) 3.10

( Image quality ) 3.80

3.117

( Collimator ) 3.64

3.133

(Collimation) 3.63

(Equalizing filter, beam flattener) 3.126

3.125

( Compton scatter ) 3.12

() [ Computerized tomography ( CT )] 3.109

- ( Gamma - ray source container ) 3.106

( Image contrast ) 3.69

( Object contrast ) 3.70

,

(Contrast sensivity, thickness sensivity) 3.72

( Contrast medium ) 3.67

3.3

( Build - up factor ) 3.11

(Build-up of ionizing radiation) 3.16

(Attenuation coefficient ) 3.23

(Intensifying factor) 3.78

-

(Intensification factor) 3.79

(Edge-blocking material) 3.127

( Decay curve ) 3.153

( LINAC )

[Linear electron accelerator (LINAC)] 3.148

( Constant potential circuit ) 3.174

( Viewing mask ) 3.141

3.89

( Pressure marks ) 3.85

3.110

- 3.112

- 3.111

( Microfocus radiography ) 3.124

( Target ) 3.162

(Duplex wire image quality indicator) 3.96

( MTF )

[Modulation transfer function (MTF)] 3.138

( Tube voltage ) 3.172

3.140

( Unsealed source ) 3.173

3.27

3.3

(Continious spectrum) 3.177

( Unsharpness ) 3.57

3.75

3.58

(Film processing) 3.155

(Back scatter/back scattered radiation) 3.76

(Tube window) 3.171

( Fog density ) 3.39

( Visual contrast ) 3.71

( Attenuation ) 3.21

3.28

(Relative sensitivity of radiation inspection) 3.93

3.131

( Panoramic exposure ) 3.37

( Primary radiation ) 3.6

3.5

( Half life ) 3.104

3.98

( Screen type film ) 3.48

( Absorption ) 3.24

( Film base ) 3.47

, IQI

(Image quality value, IQI sensivity) 3.82

( Useful density range ) 3.51

3.84

( Radiation image converter ) 3.54

3.95

(Projective magnification) 3.87

3.86

( Spatial resolution ) 3.62

( ) (Development of a film or paper) 3.156

3.26

( Radiation thickness ) 3.20

3.113

3.120

( Radiation image ) 3.34

-

(Radiation-optical image converter) 3.55

3.150

( Radiation contrast ) 3.68

( Radiation nondestructive testing ) 3.1

3.144

- 3.137

( Radiograph ) 3.18

( Radiographic film ) 3.46

3.108

( Radiogram ) 3.38

( Radiography ) 3.99

( Radioisotope ) 3.103

3.107

( Radioscopy ) 3.115

( Source size ) 3.66

( Focal spot size ) 3.30

( Image definition ) 3.73

(Scattered radiation) 3.9

- (Object-to-film distance) 3.33

- (Focus-to-film distance (ffd)) 3.32

( X - ray tube ) 3.160

( X - rays ) 3.8

( Light image ) 3.36

( Latent image ) 3.139

( Half value thickness ) 3.22

( Inherent unsharpness ) 3.60

( Inherent filtration ) 3.56

(Projective magnification technique) 3.88

(Average gradient) 3.25

3.118

3.123

( Step wedge ) 3.181

( Exposure chart ) 3.42

( Shadow radiation image ) 3.35

( Rod anode tube ) 3.161

( Beam angle ) 3.53

( Specific activity ) 3.105

( Narrow beam of ionizing radiation ) 3.14

( Image enhancement ) 3.74

(Intensifying screen) 3.136

( Image intensifier ) 3.77

3.134

-

3.135

( Filter ) 3.130

3.129

( Fluorescent intensifying screen ) 3.146

3.145

3.114

(Fluorometallic intensifying screen) 3.147

3.122

( Focal spot ) 3.29

() [ Charasteristic curve ( of a film )] 3.45

3.119

( Flaw sensivity ) 3.142

( Film system speed ) 3.143

(Broad beam of ionizing radiation) 3.15

(Exposure latitude) 3.43

(Tube shutter) 3.170

3.83

( Equivalent X - ray voltage ) 3.168

(Tube shield) 3.169

( Exposure ) 3.40

3.116

(Sensitivity standard of radiation inspection) 3.94

(Effective focal spot of ionizing radiation source) 3.31

3

1 . . , 1900-2000 .: / .. , .. , .. .; . .. . .: , 2001. 616 .

2 . European Standart EN 1330:1997 Terms used in Industrial Radiographic Testing.

4 .

4.1 .

4.1.1 . ( Homogeneous medium ) - , .

4.1.2 . ( Elasticity ) - .

4.1.3 . ( Elastic body ) - , .

4.1.4 . ( Elastic medium ) - , .

4.1.5 . ( ) ( Isotropic material , isotropic medium ) - (), () .

4.1.6 . ( Elastic anisotropy ) - .

4.1.7 . ( Linear element of a body ) - .

4.1.8 . , ( Deformation of solid ) - () .

4.1.9 . - ( Tension - compression strain ) - , .

4.1.10 . ( Shear strain ) - , . ( ). .

4.1.11 . ( Elastic deformation ) - , [ 15 ].

4.1.12 . ( Plastic deformation ) - , [ 15 ].

4.1.13 . ( Tensor of deformation ) - , - ( ) .

4.1.14 . ( Generalized force ) - . .

. , .

4.1.15 . , ( Mechanical force ) - . . .

4.1.16 . ( External force ) - , . .

4.1.17 . ( Internal force ) - . .

4.1.18 . ( Elastic force ) - , ( ) () . .

4.1.19 . ( Stress ) - , . .

4.1.20 . ( Normal stress ) - , . .

4.1.21 . ( Tangential stress , shear stress ) - , , . .

4.1.22 . ( Pressure ):

- . . ;

- . , . .

4.1.23 . ( Tensor of stress ) - , , () .

4.1.24 . ( Limit of proportionality ) - , ( ). .

4.1.25 . ( Limit of elasticity ) - , , () . .

4.1.26 . ( Yield strength ) - , . -. .

4.1.27 . ( Ultimate strength ) - , , . .

4.1.28 . ( Rupture limit , ultimate strength ) - [ 16 ]. .

4.1.29 . ( Adhesive strength ) - , . .

4.1.30 . ( Cohesive strength ) - , . .

4.2 .

4.2.1 . ( Oscillation ) - ( ), .

4.2.2 . ( Oscillating value ) - , . , , , , , .

4.2.3 . ( Periodic oscillation ) - .

4.2.4 . ( Oscillating system ) - , (, , ..).

4.2.5 . ( Equilibrium ) - , .

4.2.6 . ( Elastic oscillations , vibrations ) - , .

4.2.7 . ( Displacement ) - . . .

. , .

4.2.8 . ( Particle velocity ) - , . /.

4.2.9 . ( Oscillation cycle ) - , , .

4.2.10 . ( Period ):

1 . , . - , . .

2 . , . [ 10 ].

4.2.11 . ( Amplitude ) - , , .

4.2.12 . , ( Oscillation frequency , frequency ) - () ( ). ().

1 - 1 , 1 - 1000 , 1 - 1000000 [ 10 ].

4.2. 13 . , , ( Angular frequency ) - ω=2π f = 2π/ , f - , - .

4.2.14 . ( Audio frequency ) - , 16 20 . 20 . .

4.2. 15 . ( Ultrasonic frequency ) - , . 20 , - 1 =109 . .

4.2.16 . ( Phase ):

1 . , . .

. , , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.2.17 . ( Forced oscillations , constrained oscillations ) - , .

4.2.18 . ( Free oscillations , free vibrations ) - .

. vibrations .

4.2.19 . ( Harmonical oscillation ) - , .

4.2.20 . ( Linear oscillating system ) - , .

4.2.2 1 . ( Non - linear oscillating system ) - , .

4.2.22 . ( Mechanical impedance ) - , ( ) . . ∙/.

. .

4.2.23 . ( Mass ) - . .

4.2.24 . , ( Flexibility , compliance ) - . , . /.

4.2.25 . ( Stiffness ) - . , . /.

4.2.26 . ( Active resistance ) - , . 1 ∙/=1 /.

4.2.27 . ( Inertial Impedance ) - , . ∙/=1 /.

4.2.28 . ( Elastic impedance ) - , . 1 ∙/=1 /.

4.2.29 . ( System with lumped parameters ) - , - , .

4.2.30 . ( System with distributed parameters ) - , , .

4.2.31 . ( Natural frequency ) - . .

4.2.32 . , ( Fundamental frequency , first harmonic ) - . .

4.2.33 . ( Harmonic ) - , . .

4.2.34 . ( Resonance frequency ) - , . .

4.2.35 . ( Antiresonance frequency ) - , . .

4.2.36 . ( Overtone ) - , . .

4.2.37 . (Quality factor, Q-factor):

1 . ,

,

W - ;

W - [ 20].

2 . . , , .

3 . 0,707 .

. 2 3 ( Q > (5-10)), 1 .

4.2.38 . ( ) ( Attenuation coefficient ) - - , . -1.

4.2.39 . , ( Logarithmic decrement ) - , t t +.

.

,

- ;

- .

4.3 .

4.3.1 .

4.3.1.1 . , ( Elastic wave , acoustic wave ):

1 . .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3. 1.2 . ( Ultrasonic wave ) - , ( 20 ) [ 10 ].

4.3. 1.3 . ( Audio - frequency wave , sonic wave ) - , ( 16 20 ).

4.3.1.4 . , ( Sound pressure ) - ( - ), . 1 =1 /2 [ 14 ].

4.3. 1.5 . ( Particle velocity ) - . . /.

4.3. 1.6 . , ( Sound velocity , velocity of propagation ):

1 . . /.

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3.1.7 . ( Wave amplitude ) - ( - ).

4.3.1.8 . ( Wave intensity ) - , , [ 14 ]. /2.

. .

4.3.1.9 . ( Wavelength ) - , , [ 10 ]. .

4.3.1.10 . (Running wave):

1 . , .

2 . , [ 15 ].

4.3.1.11 . (Standing wave, stationary wave):

1 . , () , .

2 . , , [ 10 ].

4.3.1.12 . ( Wave number ) - , , ω : k /. -1.

4.3.1.13 . ( Wave vector ) - , [ 15 ].

4.3.1.14 . ( Inhomogeneous wave ) - , , , .

4.3.1.15 . ( Diffraction ) - , () , . , , , , ..

4.3.1.16 . ( Wave interference ):

1 . , .

2 . , , [ 10 ].

4.3.1.17 . ( Wave phase ) - , .

. , , . .

4.3.1.18 . ( Wavefront ):

1 . () - , , .

- , , (. . 4.1.17).

2 . , , [ 10 ].

4.3.1.19 . ( Ray , beam ) - , .

4.3. 1.20 . , ( Wave train ) - , .

4.3.2 .

4.3.2. 1 . ( Plane wave ):

1 . .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.3.2.2 . ( Spherical wave ) - [ 10 ].

4.3.2.3 . ( Cylindrical wave ) - [ 10 ].

4.3.2.4 . , - ( Longitudinal wave , compressional wave ).

1 . , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

. 1 . () () :

- ; λ - ;

4.3.2.5 . , ( Transverse wave , shear wave ) - , [ 10 ].

4.3.2.6 . ( Volumetric wave ) - , . .

4.3.2.7 . , ( Rayleigh wave , surface wave ):

1 . , , , .

2 . , , [ 10 ].

4.3.2.8 . ( Plane of incidence ) - , .

4.3.2.9 . ( Additional plane ) - , .

4.3.2.10 . ( Polarization ) - .

4.3.2.11 . , SV - ( Shear vertical wave , SV wave ) - , .

4.3.2. 12 . , SH - ( Shear horizontal wave , SH wave ) - , .

4.3.2.13 . ( Normal wave ) - (, ), , .

4.3.2.14 . , ( Lamb wave , plate wave ):

1 . , h f . hf .

. , .

2 . , , , [ 10 ].

4.3.2.15 . ( Wave mode ) - , .

4.3.2.16 . ( Symmetrical Lamb wave ) - , () , .

. 2 .

4.3.2.17 . ( Antisymmetrical Lamb wave ) - , () : , - , .

4.3.2.18 . ( Lamb wave of zero order ) - , h f , hf =0.

4.3.2.19 . ( Bending wave , flexural wave ) - , , . - .

4.3.2.20 . ( Longitudinal wave in a rod ) - , . ρ:

.

4.3.2.21 . (Head wave, creeping wave):

1 . , , . .

2 . , . , [ 10 ].

4.3.2.22 . ( Lateral wave ) - , . .

4.3.2.23 . ( Love wave ) - SH , , ( ) . . , , .

4.3.2.24 . ( Stoneley wave ) - SV , ( ) , , , . .

4.3.2.25 . ( Diffraction wave ) - , . .

4.3.2.26 . ( Dispersion wave ) - , . .

4.3.2.27 . ( Indispersion wave ) - , .

4.3.2.28 . ( Run round wave ) - , (, , ). , .

4.3.2.29 . ( Slide off wave ) - , .

4.3.2.30 . ( Coherent waves ) - , .

4 .3.3.

4.3.3. 1 . ( Phase velocity ):

1 . . /.

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3.3.2 . ( Group velocity ):

1 . . /.

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3.3.3 . ( Velocity dispersion ) - , ( ), () . - , .

4.3.3.4 . (Wave attenuation):

1 . .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3.3.5 . ( Absorption ) - , ( ) [ 10 ].

4.3.3.6 . ( Scattering ):

1 . , () ( ) .

2 . , () [ 10 ].

4.3.3.7 . () ( Attenuation coefficient ):

1 . , ( ) , . . /, /.

2 . , , , . / [ 10 ].

4.3.3.8 . (Absorption coefficient):

1 . , ( ) . /, /.

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.3.3.9 . ( Scattering coefficient ) - , ( ) . /, /.

4.3.3.10 . ( Node ) - (, ), , , [ 14 ].

4.3.3. 11 . ( Antinode , crest ) - (, ), , , [ 14 ].

4.3.3.12 . ( Material Q - factor ) - , : Q = k /2δ .

4.3.3. 13 . , ( Characteristic acoustic impedance ) - . : z . z - . ∙/.

. Rayl (), 1 Rayl =1 ∙/.

4.3.3.14 . ( Acoustic impedance ) - , . ∙ /.

. . ∙/3 [ 14 ].

4.3.3.15 . ( Path length ) - [ 10 ]. .

4.3.3.16 . ( Path difference ) - [ 10 ]. .

4.3.3.17 . ( Doppler effect ) - , .

4.3.4 .

4.3.4. 1 . ( Interface , boundary ):

1 . .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.3.4.2 . ( Incident wave ) - , .

. 3 . :

1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; a - ; a 1 - ; b -

4.3.4.3 . (Angle of incidence):

1 . .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3.4.4 . ( Normal incidence ) - , .

4.3.4.5 . ( Angular incidence ) - , .

4.3.4.6 . (Reflection, wave reflection):

1 . , .

2 . . [ 10 ].

4.3.4.7 . ( Reflected wave ) - , , , .

4.3.4.8 . ( Multiple reflections , multiple echo ) - [ 10 ].

4.3.4.9 . ( Reverberation ) - .

4.3.4.10 . ( Angle of reflection ) - . .

4.3.4.11 . , ( Reflection coefficient ):

1 . .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3.4.12 . ( Energy reflection coefficient ) - .

4.3.4.13 . ( Total reflection ):

1 . , , , .

2 . , , , , [ 10 ].

4.3.4.14 . ( Refraction ) - [ 10 ].

4.3.4. 15 . ( Refracted wave ) - , [ 10 ]. .

4.3.4.16 . (Angle of refraction):

1 . .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3.4.17 . ( Refractive index ):

1 . .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3.4. 18 . , ( Transmission coefficient ):

1 . , , .

. , : , ..

2. , , [ 10 ].

4.3.4. 19 . ( Energy transmission coefficient ) - , , .

4.3.4.20 . (Wave transformation, mode conversion, wave conversion):

1 . .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.3.4.21 . , ( Snell s low ) - , , .

4.3.4.22 . ( Refraction ) - , .

4.3.4.23 . ( Critical angle ) - , ( ) .

4.3.4.24 . ( first critical angle ) - , .

4.3.4.25 . ( Second critical angle ) - , .

4.3.4.26 . ( Third critical angle ) - , .

4.3.4.27 . ( Corner effect ) - .

4.3.4.28 . ( Beam displacement due to reflection ) - . . ( 45) [ 10 ].

. 4 .

4.3.4.29 . ( Acoustic shadow ):

1 . , , , .

2 . , , , [ 10 ].

. 5 . ( )

4.4 .

4.4. 1 . ( Acoustic field , sound field ):

1 . . .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.4.2 . , ( Near field , Fresnel - zone ):

1 . , , , .

,

D - ;

λ - .

2 . , . [ 10 ].

. 6 . :

1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; r - ; θ -

4.4.3 . , ( Far field , Fraunhofer zone ):

1 . , . .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.4.4 . ( Transitive zone ) - , . .

4.4.5 . ( Searchlight zone ) - , , .

4.4.6 . , , ( Acoustic beam , sound beam , ultrasonic beam ):

1 . , .

2 . , , [ 10 ].

4.4.7 . ( Effective acoustic center ) - , , .

. . , , .

4.4.8 . ( Probe axis ):

1 . , , .

: 1. .

2 . , , .

3 . , .

4 . , , .

2 . , , , [ 10 ].

4.4.9 . , ( Beam axis , central ray ) - , , .

: 1. .

2 . , , .

4.4.10 . ( Quasibend of acoustic axis ) - , , , , , . .

4.4.1 1 . ( Beam edge ) - , [ 10 ].

. .

4.4.12 . ( Beam profile ) - , [ 10 ].

4.4.13 . ( Beam divergence , beam spread ) - , .

4.4.14 . ( Divergence angle ) - , , .

4.4.15 . ( Focusing of acoustic field ) - , .

4.4.16 . , ( Focus , focal point ):

1 . , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.4.17 . - ( Focus of dual search unit ) - - , . , .

4.4.18 . ( Focal distance ) - .

4.4.19 . (Focal zone, depth of focus):

1 . , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.5 . ,

4.5.1 .

4.5.1.1 . ( Electro - acoustical transducer ) - , .

4.5.1.2 . ( ) ( Probe , search unit ):

1 . , () .

2 . , (, ), () [ 10 ].

4.5.1.3 . ( ) ( Transducer , crystal ):

1 . , () (, ).

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.5. 1.4 . ( Vibrator ) - , () . .

4.5.1.5 . ( Piezoelectric probe ):

1 . , () .

2 . , () (), [ 7 ].

4.5.1 .6 . ( Transmitting probe ) - , .

4.5.1.7 . ( Receiving probe ) - , .

4.5.1.8 . (Normal probe, straight beam probe):

1 . () .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.5.1.9 . ( Angle probe ):

1 . () , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.5.1.10 . ( Variable angle probe ):

1 . , .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.5. 1.11 . ( Single crystal probe , transceiver ):

1 . , .

2 . ( ), , [ 10 ].

4.5.1.12 . ( Combined probe of MIA flaw detector ) - , .

4.5.1.13 . ( Differential combined probe of MIA flaw detector ) - , , .

4.5.1.14 . - ( Dual search unit , dual probe , send / receive probe , double ( twin ) probe ) - , , , , - [ 10 ].

. 7 . - :

- ; - ; -

4.5.1.15 . ( Longitudinal wave probe , compressional wave probe ) - () [ 10 ].

4.5.1.16 . ( Transverse wave probe , shear wave probe ) - () .

4.5. 1.17 . , ( Surface wave probe , Rayleigh wave probe ) - () [ 10 ].

4.5.1.18 . ( Lamb wave probe ) - () [ 10 ].

4.5.1.19 . ( Contact probe ) - , , .

4.5. 1.20 . ( Immersion probe ) , .

4.5. 1.21 . ( Wheel probe ):

1 . , . .

2 . , , . [ 10 ].

4.5.1.22 . ( Jet probe , squirter probe ) - , ( ).

4.5. 1.23 . ( Bubblier device ) - , . - .

4.5.1.24 . , ; , ( Countered probe ):

1 . , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.5.1.25 . ( Chord type probes ) - ( ) , , , . .

. 8 . :

1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; 5 -

4.5. 1.26 . ( Dry point contact probe ) - , .

4.5.1.27 . ( Noncontact probe ) - , . .

4.5. 1.28 . ( Air coupled transducer ) - , () .

4.5.1.29 . - , - ( Electromagnetic acoustic transducer , EMAT , electrodynamic transducer ):

1 . , () .

2 . , , ( ) [ 10 ].

. , , , , , , .

4.5.1.30 . () ( Electrostatic transducer ) - , () , . .

4.5. 1.31 . ( Magnetostrictive transducer ) - , , [ 10 ].

4.5. 1.32 . ( Transducer mosaic ):

1 . , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.5.1.33 . ( Focusing probe ):

1 . , ( , , ..) .

2 . , ( , , ..) [ 10 ].

4.5.1.34 . (Phased array, transducer array probe):

1 . ( ), .

2 . ( ), [ 10 ].

4.5.1.35 . ( Linear phased array ) - , .

4.5. 1.36 . (2 D phased array ) - , ( ) .

4.5.1.37 . ( Ring phased array ) - , .

4.5. 1.38 . ( Bimorph transducer , flexing piezoelectric element ) - , ( ), , , , .

4.5.1.39 . () ( Optical laser transducer ) - , () .

4.5.2 .

4.5.2.1 . ( Piezoelectricity ) - ( ) ( ) .

4.5.2.2 . ( Piezoelectric element , crystal ) - , .

4.5.2.3 . ( Metal plated crystal , metal plated transducer ) - .

4.5.2.4 . () ( Bare crystal , bare transducer ) - .

4.5.2.5 . ( Protected crystal , protected transducer ) - .

4.5.2.6 . ( Wear plate , wear face , diaphragm ):

1 . , , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.5.2.7 . (Damping element, damper, transducer backing, buffer):

1 . , . , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.5.2.8 . () ( Wedge , shoe ):

1 . ( ), () , , .

2 . ( ), [ 10 ].

4.5.2.9 . ( Focusing crystal , focusing transducer ) - , .

4.5.2.10 . ( Acoustic lens ) - , , .

4.5.2.11 . - ( Plane - concave lens ) - , .

4.5.2.12 . ( Biconcave lens ) - .

4.5.2.13 . ( Matching transducer to the media ) - ( ) .

4.5.2.14 . ( Matching layer ) - , .

4.5.2.15 . ( Barium titanate ) - - , iO 3 .

4.5.2.16 . - , ( Lead zirconate - titanate , PZT ) - .

4.5.2.17 . ( Lead metaniobate ) - , PbNb 2 O 6 .

4.5.2.18 . ( Quartz ) - , SiO 2 .

4.5.2.19 . ( Lithium sulphate ) - , Li 2 SO 4 H 2 O .

4.5.2.20 . ( Lithium niobate ) - .

4.5.2.21 . , ( Polyvinildenftoride , PVDF ) - , .

4.5.2.22 . - ( X - cut crystal ) - ( ), , Y . () [ 10 ].

4.5.2.23 . Y - ( Y - cut crystal ) - ( ), , Y . () [ 10 ].

4.5.2.24 . , ( Delay line , buffer rod , standoff ) - ( ), .

4.5.2.25 . ( Contact tip ) - , , , (, , ..).

4.5.2.26 . ( Lap ) - , ( ) .

4.5.2.27 . ( Backing mass ) - , .

. () .

4.5.2.28 . ( Housing , probe case , probe casing ) - , .

4.5.2.29 . , ( Wave guide ) - , (, ).

4.5.3 .

4.5.3.1 . ( Probe operating surface ) - , () .

4.5.3.2 . ( Probe index ) - . [ 10 ].

4.5.3.3 . ( Wedge angle ) - ( ) . .

4.5.3.4 . ( Angle of probe ) - , , .

4.5.3.5 . ( Nominal angle of probe ):

1 . , () .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.5.3.6 . ( Nominal frequency ) - , ( ).

4.5.3.7 . ( Directivity characteristic , directivity function ) - ( ) , . .

. , .

4.5.3.8 . ( Directivity characteristic ) - .

4.5.3.9 . ( Main lobe of directivity characteristic ) - , ( 0,1 =0,316 ) .

4.5.3.10 . ( Side lobes of directivity characteristic ) - , .

4.5.3.11 . ( Side lobes level ) - [ 5 ].

4.5.3. 12 . ( Directivity characteristic width ) - . 3 , - 6 , - 10 20 .

4.5.3.13 . ( Operation frequency ) - , , () , , . .

. , , .

4.5.3.14 . ( X - value ) - [ 2 ].

4.5.3.15 . ( Probe transfer f unction ) - . : - , , - . : - , - , .

4.5.3.16 . ( Probe conversion coefficient ) - .

4.5.3.17 . ( Probe double conversion coefficient ) - .

4.5.3.18 . - , ( Frequency response ) - .

4.5.3.19 . ( Transducer s bandwidth , probes bandwidth ) - , 0,707 ( ) 0,5 ( -) .

. .

4.5.3.20 . ( Frequency of maximum conversion ) - , - .

4.5.3.21 . ( Acoustic load ) - (, ), . .

. , .

4.5.3.22 . ( Electric load ) - , .

4.5.3.23 . ( Matching transducer to the electric load ) - ( ) , , .

4.5.3.24 . ( Piezoelectric constants ) - , .

4.5.3.25 . ( Electromechanical coupling coefficient , coupling coefficient ) - , , W W W . b . b =0,094, -19 - b =0,4.

4.5.3.26 . , ( Piezoelectric modulus ) - d q , , F : d = q / F . /.

4.5.3.27 . ( Curie point ) - , . .

4.5.3.28 . ( Maximum operation temperature ) - , . . .

4.5.3.29 . ( Polling voltage ) , . .

4.5.3.30 . ( Slack ) - . , .

4.5.3.31 . ( Probe damping factor ) - , , [ 10 ].

. 9 . .

25 % (4), 1/4=0,25

4.5.3.32 . ( Transducer size ) - [ 10 ].

4.5.3.33 . ( Effective transducer size ):

1 . , . .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.5.3.34 . ( Delay path ) - [ 10 ]. .

4.5.3.35 . ( Aperture ) - , . . , , , . 2.

4.6 .

4.6.1 . ( Acoustic contact ) - , .

4.6.2 . , ( Couplant , coupling medium , coupling film ) - , .

4.6.3 . ( Contact technique ) - , , .

4.6.4 . ( Immersion technique ) - , , [ 2 ].

4.6.5 . ( Gap testing technique ) - [ 2 ].

4.6.6 . ( Jet technique , squirter technique ) - , [ 2 ].

4.6.7 . ( Dry contact ) - , .

4.6.8 . ( Dry point contact ) - ( ), .

4.6.9 . ( Noncontacting technique ) - () .

4.6.10 . ( Air coupled technique ) - , ( ) .

4.6. 11 . ( Contact flexibility , contact compliance ) - . .

4.6.12 . ( Static contact flexibility ) - , , . - .

4.6.13 . ( Dynamic contact flexibility ) - Fm . F 0 , Fm << F 0 . - .

4.6.14 . ( Coupling losses ) - [ 10 ].

4.6.15 . ( Acoustical impedance matching ) - () [ 10 ].

4.7 .

4.7.1 . ( Acoustic method ):

: , () ( 0 1 ).

( sonic method ): , ( ) .

4.7.2 . ( Ultrasonic method ) - , ( 20 ).

4.7.3 . ( Active acoustic method ) - , .

4.7.4 . ( Passive acoustic method ) - , , .

4.7.5 . [Through transmission method (technique), transmission technique]:

1 . , , , , (: , , ..). , .

2 . , , . , [ 10 ].

4.7.6 . [ Through transmission method ( technique )] - , .

4.7.7 . [ Through transmission method ( technique )] - , ( ) , .

4.7.8 . , [ Through transmission method ( technique )] - , () .

. .

4.7.9 . [ Through transmission method ( technique )] - , , .

4.7.10 . ( Velocimetric method ) - , . . - .

4.7.11 . , - (Reflection method, echo method):

1 . , , , .

2 . , , [ 10 ].

. - .

4.7.12 . - ( Time of flight diffraction method , TOFD method ) - , , .

4.7. 13 . - ( Delta method ) - , .

4.7. 14 . , ( Reverberation method , multiple - echo technique ):

1 . , , .

2 . , . :

, -;

. [ 10 ].

4.7.15 . - ( Echo - mirror method ) - , , [ 2 ].

4.7.16 . - ( Mirror through transmission method ) - , , .

4.7.17 . ( Immersion technique ) - , , () . .

4.7.18 . ( Combined method ) - , .

4.7.19 . - - , .

4.7.20 . - - , , .

4.7.21 . - ( Acoustic - ultrasonic method ) - , , .

4.7.22 . ( Coherent method ) - , , .

4.7.23 . ( Incoherent method ) - , .

4.7.24 . (Tandem technique):

1 . - , . , , , -, - . - , .

2 . , , . , , , , - . - , [ 10 ].

. 10 . () ():

1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; 5 -

4.7.25 . - ( Tandem - T technique ) - - , , . .

4.7.26 . -, ( Tandem - duet technique ) - - , , (, ), (, ) , , ( 100-110).

4.7.27 . ( Mechanical impedance analysis method , MIA method ) - , . .

4.7.28 . [ Ultrasonic contact impedance method ( technique ), UCI method ] - , . .

4.7.29 . ( Acoustic microscopy ) - -, ( 100 ) , . .

4.7.30 . ( Natural vibration method ) - , , .

4.7.31 . ( Integral natural vibration method ) - , .

4.7.32 . ( Integral resonance method ) - , . - - , , .

4.7.33 . ( Local natural vibration method ) - , .

4.7.34 . ( Local resonance method ) - , . - .

4.7.35 . ( Free vibration method ) - , .

4.7.36 . ( Integral free vibration method ) - , . - - , , .

4.7.37 . ( Local free vibration method ) - , . - .

4.7.38 . ( Acoustical holography ) - , , . .

4.7.39 . ( Holographic presentation ) - , .

4.7.40 . () ( Digital acoustic holography ) - .

4.7.41 . ( Synthetic aperture technique ) - -, .

4.7.42 . , SAFT ( Synthetic aperture focusing technique , SAFT ) - -, .

4.7.43 . ( SAFT FFT ) - -, .

. . 4.7.42 4.8.23.

4.7.44 . ( Ultrasonic tomography ) - -. .

4.7.45 . - ( Acousic - topographic method ) - , . - .

4.7.46 . , ( Ultrasound lock - in - thermography ) - , ( 20 ) . , .

4.7.47 . ( Photoacoustic imagery , photoacoustic microscopy ) - , . (, ), . - , .

4.7.48 . ( Non - linear acoustic method ) - , . . . - .

4.7.49 . - ( Acoustic emission method ) - , , , [27]*.

4.7.50 . - ( Vibration diagnostics method ) - , , .

4.7.51 . ( Noise diagnostics method ) - , , .

4.8 .

4.8.1 . ( Signal ) - , [ 1 ].

4.8.2 . ( Pulse ):

1 . : , .

: , .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.8.3 . ( Video pulse ) - .

4.8.4 . ( Radio - frequency pulse ) - .

4.8.5 . ( Pulse amplitude ) - .

4.8.6 . (Pulse length, pulse duration):

1 . , (, 0,1 ).

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.8.7 . ( Pulse shape ):

1 . .

2 . - [ 10 ].

4.8.8 . ( Pulse envelope ) - , - [ 10 ].

4.8.9 . , ( Pulse spatial length ) - , , .

4.8.10 . (Pulse repetition frequency, pulse repetition rate):

1 . ( ). .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.8.1 1 . (), ( Rectified signal ):

1 . , .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.8.12 . , ( R - F signal ):

1 . , ( ).

2 . [ 10 ].

4.8.13 . ( Rectangular pulse , square pulse ) - .

4.8.14 . ( Bell pulse ) - .

4.8.15 . ( Triangular pulse ) - () , .

4.8.16 . , , ( Frequency spectrum ):

1 . () , .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.8.17 . ( Pulse spectrum ) - .

4.8.18 . ( Amplitude spectrum ) - .

4.8.19 . ( Phase spectrum ) - .

4.8.20 . () [ Fourier transform ( in time domain )] - , .

4.8.21 . () [ Fourier transform ( in space domain )] - ( ) . .

4.8.22 . () ( Inverse Fourier transform ) - , .

4.8.23 . () ( Fast Fourier transform , FFT ) - , .

4.8.24 . , ( Emission pulse ) - (), .

4.8.25 . - ( Echo signal ) - , .

4.8.26 . , ( Echo height , signal amplitude ) - () [ 10 ].

4.8.27 . (Back-wall echo, bottom echo):

1 . [ 2 ].

2 . , , . [ 10 ].

4.8.28 . ( Through signal ) - , .

4.8.29 . ( Transmission point , zero point , front surf reflection ) - , [ 10 ].

4.8.30 . ( ) (Transmission pulse indication, initial pulse):

1 . , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.8.3 1 . ( Multiple echos ) - .

4.8.32 . (Spurious echo, parasitic echo):

1 . , , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.8.33 . ( Noise ) - , . , , ..

. - - , , ( ), .

4.8.34 . ( Noise ):

1 . , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

. , noise .

4.8.35 . ( Structural noise ) - , .

4.8.36 . ( Electrical noise ) - , , , ..

4.8.37 . ( Cross - talk ):

1 . , , .

2 . - , [ 10 ].

4.8.38 . ( Thermal noise ) - , , .

4.8.39 . ( Frictional noise ) - , . , .

4.8.40 . - (Signal-to-noise ratio):

1 . .

. - , , .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.8.41 . - , ( Response characteristic ) - - . .

4.8.42 . , (Cut-off frequency, frequency limit):

1 . , (, 3 ).

2 . , 3 , [ 10 ].

4.8.43 . ( Transmission factor ) - (, ..) . , .

4.8.44 . ( Bandwidth ):

1 . , , 0,707 .

. .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.8.45 . ( Pulse center frequency ) - , .

. .

4.8.46 . ( Narrow banded signal ) - .

. .

4.8.47 . ( Narrow banded device ) - (, , ..) - .

4.8.48 . ( Broad banded signal ) - .

4.8.49 . ( Broad banded device ) - (, , . .) - .

4.8.50 . ( Phase - manipulated signal ) - , : 0 180.

4.8.5 1 . -- , - ( Linear frequency - modulated signal ) - , .

4.8.52 . ( Barker code ) - , .

4.8.53 . ( Optimal filter ) - , , . - .

4.8.54 . ( Analog processing ) - .

4.8.55 . ( Digital processing ) - , .

4.8.56 . ( Coherent processing ) - , .

4.8.57 . ( Two parametric signal processing ) - , , : , .. () .

4.9 .

4.9.1 .

4.9.1.1 . ( Acoustic test equipment ) - , , , , . , , , .

4.9.1.2 . , :

( Acoustic flaw detector ): , , 0 1 .

( Sonic flaw detector ): , , ( ) .

4.9.1.3 . ( Ultrasonic flaw detector ) - , .

4.9.1.4 . ( Acoustic thickness gauge ) - , () [ 2 ].

. gauge gage .

4.9.1.5 . ( Ultrasonic thickness gauge ) - , .

4.9.1.6 . ( Ultrasonic hardness meter , UCI hardness meter ) - , .

4.9.1.7 . ( Acoustic structure analyzer ):

: , .

: , .

4.9.1.8 . ( Ultrasonic structure analyzer ) - , .

4.9.1.9 . - ( Reflectoscope , pulse echo flaw detector ) - , . , .

4.9.1.10 . ( Through transmission flaw detector ) - , .

4.9.1.11 . ( Mechanical impedance analysis flaw detector , MIA flaw detector ) - , .

4.9.1.12 . ( Velocimetric flaw detector ) - , .

4.9.1.13 . - - , .

4.9.1.14 . MCeK - - , .

4.9. 1.15 . ( Resonance thickness gauge ) - , ( ).

4.9.1.16 . ( General purpose test equipment ) - (, ..), .

4.9.1.17 . ( Special purpose test equipment ) - (, ..), .

. 4.9.1.16 4.9.1.17 .

4.9.2 .

4.9.2.1 . ( Scanning device ) - .

4.9.2.2 . ( Acoustic block ) - , ( ) ( ) ( ).

4.9.2.3 . ( Electronic block ) - , , , .

4.9.2.4 . ( Receiver ) - , , , . .

4.9.2.5 . ( Amplifier ) - , .

4.9.2.6 . , ( Pre - amplifier ) - , (, ) -. .

4.9.2.7 . ( Radio - frequency amplifier , RF amplifier , HF amplifier ) - ().

4.9.2.8 . ( Amplifier of rectified pulses ) - ().

4. 9.2.9 . ( Logarithmic amplifier ) - , . .

4.9.2.10 . ( Detector ) - , .

4.9.2. 11 . (Reject, noise suppression; grass cutting)

1 . , ( ).

2 . () [ 10 ].

4.9.2.12 . ( Exciter of transmitting transducer ) - , .

4.9.2.13 . ( Pulse generator ) - , .

4.9.2.14 . ( Sweep generator ) - , () ( ).

4.9.2. 15 . ( Gate , time gate ) - , [ 10 ].

4.9.2.16 . ( Gate pulse generator ) - , , .

4.9.2.17 . ( Amplitude discriminator ) - , ( ) .

4.9.2.18 . , , ( Indicator , display ) - , ( ) .

4.9.2.19 . - , ( Cathode ray tube , CRT ) - , . .

4.9.2.20 . ( Liquid crystal indicator , liquid crystal display , LCD ) - , . . .

. , (, ) , , . - .

4.9.2.21 . ( Electro - luminescent indicator , ELD ) - , . . , .

. . . 10.2.20.

4.9.2.22 . - ( Charge coupled device camera , CCD - camera ) - , .

4.9.2.23 . ( Needle instrument ) - , () .

4.9.2.24 . ( Digital indicator ) - , () .

4.9.2.25 . ( Sync generator ) - , .

4.9.2.26 . , ( Monitor ) - , (, ) .

4.9.2.27 . ( Measuring attenuator ) - , , .

4.9.2.28 . ( Depth meter ) - -, .

4.9.2.29 . ( Flaw marker ) - , .

4.9.2.30 . - , ( Analog - to - digit converter , ADC ) - , .

4.9.2.31 . , ( Digit - to - analog converter , DAC ) - , .

4.9.2.32 . ( Filter ) - , .

4.9.2.33 . ( Low frequency filter , low - pass filter ) - , .

4.9.2.34 . ( High frequency filter , high - pass filter ) - , .

4.9.2.35 . ( Band - pass filter , band filter ) - , , , .

4.9.2.36 . , ( Spectrum analyzer ) - , .

4.9.2.37 . ( Connector ) - , , , .

4.9.2.38 . ( Cable ) - , .

4.9.2.39 . ( Controls ) - , , , . .

4.9.2.40 . ( Key - board ) - .

4.9.2.41 . ( Software ) - , .

4.9.2.42 . () ( Signal processing block ) - , .

4.9.3 .

4.9.3.1 . ( Gain , amplification ) - () .

4.9.3.2 . ( Amplification factor , gain ) - . .

4.9.3.3 . ( Gain control ):

1 . [ () ] .

2 . , . [ 10 ].

4.9.3.4 . ( Standard signal level ) - , 1/2 2/3 .

4.9.3.5 . ( Receiver sensitivity ) - , , [ 8 ]. ( ).

: 1. , , .

2 . : .

4.9.3.6 . ( Maximum sensitivity of receiver ) - , . . ( ).

4.9.3.7 . ( Dynamic range ):

: (), . (, 6 ).

: (), . (, 6 ).

. , , , .

4.9.3.8 . ( Receiver frequency characteristic ) - [ 8 ].

4.9.3.9 . , ( Decibel , dB ) - . 1/2 <1/2>=20 lg ( 1/2 ), W 1 / W 2 -< W 1 / W 2 > =10 lg ( W 1 / W 2 ). , . B 1 2, (, ), < B 1 > <2>.

. 1 ( ) 1,12 , 3 - 1,41 , 6 - 2 , 20 - 10 , 40 - 100 , 60 - 1000 , 120 - 106.

4.9.3.10 . ( Neper ) - B 1 2, . 1/ A 2 ln ( A 1 / A 2 ) , W 1 / W 2 - 0,5 ln ( W 1 / W 2 ). 1=8,686 .

4.9.3. 11 . ( Sweep ) - . .

4.9.3.12 . ( Baseline ) - (, ), (, , ..). , , .

4.9.3.13 . , (Expended time-base sweep, scale expansion, delayed sweep):

1 . , , , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.9.3.14 . ( Time base range ) - , .

4.9.3.15 . ( Time base adjustment ) - .

4.9.3.16 . , [ Swept gain , time corrected gain , time variable gain , distance amplitude correction curve ( DAC )] - , , [ 8 ].

4.9.3.17 . ( Time variable gain characteristic , DAC characteristic ) - , [ 8 ].

4.9.3.18 . (Dynamic range of time variable gain):

1 . , . .

2 . [ 8 ]. .

4.9.3.19 . ( Amplifier sensitivity ) - , .

4.9.3.20 . () [ Voltage ( current ) used for probe excitation ] - ( ), .

4.9.3.21 . ( Gate level , monitor level ) - , .

4.9.3.22 . ( Monitor hysteresis ) - , .

4.9.3.23 . ( Monitor speed ) - , .

. , ( ). .

4.10 .

4.10.1 . , - ( A - scan presentation , A - scan ):

1 . , , - .

2 . , ( X ) , ( Y ) - [ 10 ].

. 11 . :

1 - ; 2 - ; 3 ; 4 - ; 5 - ; 6 - (); 7 -

4.10.2 . , - ( B - scan presentation , B - scan ):

1 . , . .

2 . , . - [ 10 ].

4.10.3 . , - (- scan presentation , C - scan ):

1 . , . .

2 . , [ 10 ].

. 12 . , , D , F .

- ; - ; D - D ; F - F ; q - ; l - ; -

4.10.4 . D , D - ( D - scan presentation ) - , , . D - - [ 10 ].

4.10.5 . , - ( P - scan presentation ) - B - - [ 10 ].

. 13 . :

1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 -

4.10.6 . F , F - ( F - scan presentation ) - . , [ 10 ].

4.10.7 . , ( Volume scan presentation , 3D- presentation ) - . A - [ 10 ].

. 14 .

4.10.8 . ( Defectogram ) - , , , .

4.10.9 . ( Screen marker ) - , , , .

4.10.10 . , ( Tomographic presentation ) - .

4.11 .

4.11.1 . (Imperfection, defect):

: .

: .

4.11.2 . ( Discontinuity ) - , - , , . : , , , ..

: 1. , , , , - (, ), .

2 . , . , . , , .

4.11.3 . ( Reflector ) - , .

4.11.4 . ( Artifitial discontinuity ) - , , .

4.11.5 . ( Artifitial reflector ):

1 . , - .

2 . , , .

4.11.6 . ( Reference reflector ) - , , , . :

;

;

;

() [ 10].

4.11.7 . ( f law model ) - () , .

4.11.8 . ( Flat bottom hole ) - , .

4.11.9 . ( Side drilled hole ) - , [ 2 ].

4.11.10 . ( Angle reflector , corner reflector ) - , () , [ 10 ].

4.11.11 . ( Notch ) - , .

4.11.12 . , ( Notch ) - , , .

4.11.13 . ( Spherical reflector ) - [ 2 ].

4.11.14 . ( Cylindrical angle reflector ) - , . , .

4.11.15 . - , , ( - ). , .

4.11.16 . ( Segmental reflector ) - , [ 2 ].

4.11.17 . ( Standard acoustic load of probe ) - , .

4.11.18 . , ( Calibration block ):

1 . , , , .

2 . , , , [ 10 ].

4.11.19 . , ( Reference block ):

1 . , . (, , ..) .

2 . , , [ 10 ].

4.12 .

4.12. 7 .

4.12.1.1 . , ( Entry surface , test surface , scanning surface ) - , [ 2 ].

4.12.1.2 . ( Back surface , bottom surface ) - , [ 2 ].

4.12.1.3 . ( Beam index ) - [ 10 ].

4.12.1.4 . ( Scanning ) - [ 10 ].

4.12. 1.5 . ( Contact testing technique ) - (), [ 10 ].

4.12.1.6 . ( Direct scan , single traverse scan ) - , [ 10 ].

4.12.1.7 . ( Indirect scan ) - () [ 10 ].

4.12.1.8 . ( Orbital scanning ) - . [ 10 ].

. .

. 15 .

4.12.1.9 . ( Swivel scanning ) - , , [ 10 ].

. 16 .

4.12. 1.10 . ( Spiral scanning ) - () [ 10 ].

4.12.1.11 . ( Scanning direction ) - ( ) [ 10 ].

4.12.1.12 . ( Manual scanning ) - [ 10 ].

4.12.1.13 . ( Automatic scanning ):

1 . .

2 . [ 10 ].

4.12.1.14 . ( Scanning index ) - .

4.12.1.15 . ( Scanning speed ) - .

4.12.1.16 . ( Single probe technique ) - , [ 10 ].

4.12.1.17 . ( Double probe technique , pitch and catch ) - , , , [ 10 ].

4.12.1.18 . ( Tandem probe connection ) - , .

4.12.1.19 . ( Duet probe connection ) - , , .

4.12.1.20 . ( Couplant path ) - [ 10 ].

4.12.1.21 . ( Probe orientation ) .

4.12.1.22 . ( Echo receiving point ) - , [ 10 ].

4.12.1.23 . ( Examination volume ):

1 . , , .

2 . , [ 10 ].

4.12.1.24 . ( Examination area ) - , (, , ).

4.12.2 .

4.12.2.1 . ( Discontinuity detection by echo method ) - , :

1 ) , ;

2 ) ;

3 ) 6 .

4.12.2.2 . (-) [ Discontinuity detection by through transmission ( mirror through transmission ) method ] - , .

4.12.2.3 . ( Reflectivity of discontinuity ):

1 . , , , .

. , .

2 . () [ 10 ].

4.12.2.4 . ( Transparency of discontinuity ) - , , , , , .

. , .

4.12.2.5 . ( Characteristic size of artificial discontinuity ) - , ( ) ( ) . , , , .. , 2.

. ( ).

4.12.2.6 . ( Equivalent size of discontinuity ) - , , , ( ) ( ). , 2.

. . , 5 4 .

4.12.2.7 . ( Equivalent area of discontinuity ) - , , , , . 2.

4.12.2.8 . , ( Testing sensitivity , sensitivity ) - .

. , , - .

4.12.2.9 . ( Absolute sensitivity of flaw detector , threshold of acoustic sensitivity ) - . , , . . 90-120 .

4.12.2. 10 . ( Real sensitivity ) - , () . , . , 2.

4.12.2.11 . ( Equivalent sensitivity ) - , . , 2.

4.12.2.12 . ( Usable sensitivity ) - , . 2.

. , .

4.12.2.13 . ( Conventional sensitivity ) - , ( , ) ( ).

4.12.2.14 . ( Sensitivity level ) - , .

4.12.2.15 . ( Acceptance level of sensitivity ) - , - .

4.12.2. 16 . , ( Reporting level , recording level ):

1 . , .

2 . , ( ) [ 10 ].

4.12.2.17 . ( Examination level of sensitivity ) - , . .

. .

4.12.2. 18 . ( Reference level , reference echo ) - [ 10 ].

4.12.2.19 . , ( Resolution ) - , [ 10 ]. .

. , ( ), .

4.12.2.20 . ( Beam resolution ) - , . .

4.12.2.21 . ( Front resolution ) - , , . .

4.12.2.22 . ( Testing productivity ) - , . 2/ ./.

4.12.2.23 . ( Untested zone ) - , .

4.12.2.24 . ( Dead zone ) - , [ 10 ]. .

4.12.2.25 . , ( Test frequency ) - , [ 10 ]. , .

4.12.2.26 . ( Optimum frequency ) - , (, , ..). , .

4.12.2.27 . ( Indication zone ) - , (, ).

4.12.2.28 . ( Depth of defect ) - . .

4.12.2.29 . ( Conventional size of defect ) - . .

4.12.2.30 . ( Conventional length of defect ) - . . .

4.12.2.31 . ( Conventional width of defect ) - , . .

4.12.2.32 . ( Conventional height of defect ) - . .

4.12.2.33 . ( Scattering indicatrix of flaw ) - ( ) , .

4.12.2.34 . --, - ( Distance - gain - size diagram , DGS - diagram ) - .

4.12.2.35 . , ( Acceptance level ):

1 . , ( ) , .

2 . , , , [ 10 ].

4.12.2.36 . ( Display level ) - , [ 10 ].

4.12.2.37 . ( Reference block method ) - - [ 10 ].

. .

4.12.2.38 . , 6 ( Half - amplitude technique , 6 dB drop technique ) - () ( , ), , , 2 ( 6 ) [ 10 ].

4.12.2.39 . 6 , 10 20 (6 dB , 10 dB and 20 dB drop techniques ) - (), , , 6 , 10 20 .

4

- 4.10.1

- 4.10.2

- 4.10.3

D

D - 4.10.4

F

F - 4.10.6

- 4.10.5

S

SH- 4.3.2.12

SV - 4.3.2.11

4.9.2.26

4.12.1.13

4.1.29

4.2.26

4.7.3

- 4.7.45

- 4.7.49

4.9.1.1

4.3.1.1

4.7.38

4.5.2.24

4.5.2.10

4.7.29

4.5.3.21

4.4.8

4.4.9

4.3.4.29

4.9.2.2

4.9.1.2

4.3.3.14

4.6.1

4.7.1

4.4.6

4.9.1.7

4.9.1.4

4.3.1.4

4.4.1

4.2.11

4.3.1.7

4.8.5

() 4.9.3.20

4.8.26

4.9.3.8

- 4.8.41

- 4.5.3.18

4.9.2.17

4.7.6

4.8.18

4.9.2.36

4.8.54

- 4.9.2.30

4.2.35

4.3.2.17

4.5.3.35

4.9.1.16

4.9.1.17

- 4.12.2.34

4.9.2.26

4.9.2.27

4.9.2.30

4.8.41

4.5.3.18

4.3.1.10

4.5.1.27

4.6.9

4.5.1.38

4.4.2

() 4.9.2.42

4.3.2.22

4.11.9

4.5.3.10

4.12.2.15

4.9.3.23

() 4.8.23

4.9.1.12

4.7.10

4.3.2.11

4.5.1.4

- 4.7.50

4.8.3, 4.8.11

4.9.2.12

4.3.2.14

4.3.2.14

4.3.2.18

4.3.2.23

4.3.2.28

4.3.2.7

- 4.3.2.4

4.3.2.29

4.3.2.24

4.5.2.29

4.3.3.13

4.3.1.12

4.3.1.13

4.3.1.20

4.9.3.16

4.1.28

4.7.8

4.7.8

4.9.3.16

4.3.4.25

4.2.17

4.8.26

4.2.33

4.2.19

4.9.2.13

4.9.2.14

4.9.2.16

4.2.24

4.9.3.22

4.12.2.28

4.9.2.28

4.3.2.21

4.7.39

4.3.2.12

4.3.4.1

4.8.42

4.3.3.2

4.1.22

4.4.3

4.9.3.9

4.5.2.12

4.5.1.36

4.8.57

4.2.39

- 4.7.13

4.5.2.7

() 4.8.11

4.9.2.10

4.11.1

4.10.8

4.9.2.29

4.9.1.2

4.1.8

4.1.12

- 4.1.9

4.1.10

4.1.8

4.1.11

4.9.3.9

-- 4.12.2.34

4.5.3.8

4.9.3.14

4.6.13

4.9.3.7

4.9.3.18

4.12.2.9

4.3.2.26

4.3.3.3

4.9.2.18

4.3.2.25

- 4.7.12

4.3.1.15

4.5.1.13

4.3.1.9

4.8.9

4.3.3.15

4.8.6

4.2.37

4.3.3.12

4.12.1.2

4.8.27

4.3.2.9

4.2.25

4.9.2.20

3

4.9.3.13

4.3.4.21

4.3.4.21

4.11.11

4.11.15

4.3.3.4

4.5.2.5

4.3.1.3

4.2.14

4.3.1.4

4.4.6

4.5.2.29

- 4.7.16

4.12.2.27

4.12.1.24

4.4.3

4.4.2

4.8.24

4.8.24

4.3.2.19

4.5.1.6

4.1.5

4.1.5

4.7.17

4.5.1.20

4.6.4

4.9.1.11

4.7.27

4.8.2

4.9.2.18

4.12.2.33

4.2.27

4.7.36

4.7.31

4.7.32

4.3.1.8

4.3.1.16

4.11.4

4.11.5

4.9.2.38

4.5.1.21

4.4.10

4.5.2.18

4.9.2.40

4.1.30

4.8.56

4.3.2.30

4.7.22

4.8.52

4.2.1

4.2.3

4.2.2

4.2.4

4.2.8, 4.3.1.5

4.8.14

4.5.1.37

4.7.18

4.6.11

4.6.2

4.6.2

4.12.1.5

4.5.2.25

4.5.1.19

4.6.3

4.12.1.23

4.12.1.16

4.12.1.17

4.11.6

4.12.2.16

4.5.2.28

4.5.3.17

4.5.3.31

( ) 4.2.38

() 4.3.3.7

4.3.4.11

4.3.4.11

4.3.4.12

4.8.43

4.3.3.8

4.5.3.16

4.3.4.18

4.3.4.18

4.3.4.19

4.3.3.9

4.9.3.2

4.5.3.25

4.4.11

- 4.5.2.22

Y - 4.5.2.23

4.3.4.23

4.2.13

4.12.1.8

4.2.20

4.5.1.35

-- 4.8.51

4.1.7

4.5.2.24

4.9.3.12

4.2.39

4.9.2.9

4.8.32

4.7.37

4.7.33

4.7.34

4.9.3.13

4.3.1.19

4.12.2.20

- 4.8.51

4.5.1.31

4.5.3.28

4.9.3.6

4.2.23

4.12.2.24

4.5.2.3

4.5.2.17

4.10.9

SAFT 4.7.42

4.7.28

4.7.9

4.7.14

4.7.11

4.7.5

4.7.35

4.7.41

4.7.42

4.7.30

4.7.26

4.7.24

- 4.7.26

- 4.7.25

4.2.22

4.3.4.8

4.8.31

4.7.43

4.3.2.15

4.11.7

4.5.1.32

- 4.9.1.13

- 4.9.1.14

4.5.2.26

4.3.4.5

4.5.1.9

4.12.1.11

4.1.19

4.1.20

4.5.3.29

4.1.21

4.8.29

() 4.8.30

4.8.12

4.3.2.27

() 4.5.2.4

4.7.23

4.12.2.23

4.2.21

4.7.48

4.3.1.14

4.9.3.10

4.11.2

4.5.2.20

4.5.3.6

4.5.3.5

4.3.2.13

4.3.4.4

4.12.2.35

4.2.36

(-) 4.12.2.2

- 4.12.2.1

() 4.8.22

4.3.2.6

4.8.8

4.1.1

4.12.2.18

4.12.2.26

4.8.53

() 4.5.1.39

4.9.2.39

4.12.1.21

4.2.32

4.5.3.9

- 4.8.40

4.11.3

4.12.2.3

4.3.4.6

4.3.4.7

4.9.2.11

4.3.4.2

4.5.3.30

4.7.4

4.5.2.21

4.2.32

4.3.4.24

4.5.3.15

4.4.4

4.2.10

- 4.9.2.22

4.3.2.1

- 4.5.2.11

4.11.8

4.3.2.8

4.3.2.7

4.12.1.1

4.12.1.1

4.3.3.5

4.2.24

4.12.2.17

4.3.4.17

4.5.2.21

4.3.4.13

4.8.44

4.5.3.19

4.9.2.35

4.3.2.10

4.8.33

4.8.37

4.3.2.5

4.9.3.21

4.6.14

4.9.2.6

4.1.24

4.1.27

4.1.26

4.1.25

4.12.2.12

4.9.2.6

4.3.4.14

4.3.4.15

() 4.8.20

() 4.8.21

( ) 4.5.1.2

4.5.1.18

4.5.1.17

4.5.1.17

4.5.1.16

4.5.1.15

4.5.1.28

4.5.1.23

4.5.1.10

4.5.1.26

( ) 4.5.1.3

, 4.5.1.24

, 4.5.1.24

4.9.2.4

4.5.1.7

() 4.5.2.8

4.9.2.41

4.3.2.4

4.3.2.20

4.4.5

4.12.2.4

4.12.2.22

4.8.9

4.10.7

4.5.2.6

4.5.1.8

4.8.13

4.11.12

4.5.3.34

4.12.1.20

4.3.3.11

4.5.3.26

4.5.3.24

4.5.3.26

4.5.1.5

4.5.2.1

4.5.2.2

4.5.3.1

4.5.3.13, 4.12.2.25

4.8.9.4, 4.8.12

4.9.3.11

4.10.1

4.10.2

4.10.3

D 4.10.4

F 4.10.6

4.10.5

- 4.5.1.14

4.5.3.32

4.3.3.16

4.12.2.19

4.12.2.19

4.9.2.37

4.3.3.6

4.4.13

4.12.2.10

- 4.7.21

4.7.14

4.3.4.9

4.9.3.15

4.9.3.3

4.2.34

4.9.1.15

4.3.4.22

4.11.12

4.12.1.12

4.2.18

4.3.2.5

4.11.16

4.8.1

4.8.46

4.8.48

4.1.15

4.1.16

4.1.17

4.1.15

4.1.14

4.1.18

4.3.2.16

4.9.2.25

4.2.30

4.2.29

4.12.1.4

4.12.1.7

4.12.1.6

4.12.1.9

4.9.2.1

4.8.28

4.3.1.6

4.3.1.6

4.12.1.15

4.2.7

4.3.4.28

4.11.18

4.2.31

4.5.1.11

4.5.1.12

4.6.15

4.5.3.23

4.5.2.13

4.5.2.14

4.12.1.19

4.12.1.18

4.11.19

4.2.5

4.8.16

4.8.17

4.8.16

4.9.2.36

4.12.1.10

6 4.12.2.38

4.12.2.38

4.6.10

4.12.2.37

6 , 10 20 4.12.2.39

4.11.17

4.11.18

4.11.19

4.9.3.4

4.6.12

4.3.1.11

4.5.3.14

4.9.2.23

4.9.2.15

4.5.1.22

4.6.6

4.8.35

4.5.2.19

4.6.7

4.6.8

4.3.2.2

4.11.13

4.9.1.10

4.7.7

4.1.13

4.1.23

4.8.38

4.7.46

4.5.2.15

4.10.10

4.10.10

4.12.1.3

4.5.3.2

4.5.3.27

4.12.1.22

4.4.16

4.3.4.20

4.3.4.26

4.8.15

4.10.7

4.5.2.27

4.2.13

4.11.10

4.3.4.27

4.5.3.4

4.3.4.10

4.3.4.3

4.3.4.16

4.5.3.3

4.4.14

4.3.3.13

4.3.3.10

4.3.1.2

4.7.46

4.7.44

4.2.15

4.9.1.3

4.7.2

4.4.6

4.9.1.8

4.9.1.6

4.9.1.5

4.1.6

4.3.1.1

4.1.4

4.2.6

4.2.28

4.1.3

4.1.2

4.5.3.11

4.12.2.36

4.12.2.35

4.12.2.16

4.12.2.14

4.9.3.1

4.9.2.5

4.9.2.8

4.9.2.7

4.12.2.32

4.12.2.30

4.12.2.13

4.12.2.31

4.12.2.29

4.3.1.17

4.2.16

4.5.1.34

4.3.3.1

4.8.19

4.8.50

4.9.2.32

4.9.2.34

4.9.2.33

4.4.19

4.4.16

- 4.4.17

4.4.15

4.5.1.33

4.5.2.9

4.4.18

4.8.7

4.4.12

4.7.47

4.8.39

4.3.1.18

4.12.2.21

X

4.9.3.17

4.5.3.7

4.12.2.5

4.5.1.25

4.9.2.31

4.8.45

4.4.9

4.2.9

4.2.13

4.3.2.3

4.11.14

- 4.5.2.16

4.9.2.31

() 4.7.40

4.8.55

4.9.2.24

4.5.2.16

4.3.1.20

4.2.12

4.2.12

4.12.2.25

4.5.3.20

4.8.10

4.8.42

4.8.16

4.12.2.8

4.12.2.8

4.9.3.5

4.9.3.19

4.12.1.14

4.5.3.12

4.8.34

4.7.51

4.6.5

4.12.2.7

4.12.2.11

4.12.2.6

4.9.2.18

4.5.3.22

4.8.36

4.5.1.1

4.9.2.21

- 4.5.1.29

- 4.9.2.19

4.9.2.3

() 4.5.1.30

4.8.47

4.8.49

4.9.2.19

- 4.5.1.29

4.3.3.17

4.4.7

4.5.3.33

- 4.9.1.9

- 4.7.15

- 4.7.11

- 4.8.25

- 4.7.20

- 4.7.19

4

2

2 D phased array 4.5.1.36

3

3 D -presentation 4.10.7

6

6 dB drop technique 4.12.2.38

6 dB, 10 dB and 20 dB drop techniques 4.12.2.39

A

Absolute sensitivity of flaw detector 4.12.2.9

Absorption 4.3.3.5

Absorption coefficient 4.3.3.8

Acceptance level 4.12.2.35

Acceptance level of sensitivity 4.12.2.15

Acoustic block 4.9.2.2

Acoustic beam 4.4.6

Acoustic contact 4.6.1

Acoustic emission technique 4.7.49

Acoustic field 4.4.1

Acoustic flaw detector 4.9.1.2

Acoustic impedance 4.3.3.14

Acoustic lens 4.5.2.10

Acoustic load 4.5.3.21

Acoustic method 4.7.1

Acoustic microscopy 4.7.29

Acoustic shadow 4.3.4.29

Acoustic structure analyzer 4.9.1.7

Acoustic test equipment 4.9.1.1

Acoustic thickness gauge 4.9.1.4

Acoustic-topographic method 4.7.45

Acoustic wave 4.3.1.1

Acoustical holography 4.7.38

Acoustical impedance matching 4.6.15

Acoustic-ultrasonic method 4.7.21

Active acoustic method 4.7.3

Active resistance 4.2.26

ADC 4.9.2.30

Additional plane 4.3.2.9

Adhesive strength 4.1.29

Air coupled technique 4.6.10

Air coupled transducer 4.5.1.28

Amplification 4.9.3.1

Amplification factor 4.9.3.2

Amplifier 4.9.2.5

Amplifier of rectified pulses 4.9.2.8

Amplifier sensitivity 4.9.3.19

Amplitude 4.2.11

Amplitude spectrum 4.8.18

Amplitude discriminator 4.9.2.17

Analog processing 4.8.54

Analog-to-digit converter 4.9.2.30

Angle of incidence 4.3.4.3

Angle of probe 4.5.3.4

Angle of reflection 4.3.4.10

Angle of refraction 4.3.4.16

Angle probe 4.5.1.9

Angle reflector 4.11.10

Angular frequency 4.2.13

Angular incidence 4.3.4.5

Antinode 4.3.3.11

Antiresonance frequency 4.2.35

Antisymmetrical Lamb wave 4.3.2.17

Aperture 4.5.3.35

Artifitial discontinuity 4.11.4

Artifitial reflector 4.11.5

A -scan 4.10.1

A -scan presentation 4.10.1

Attenuation coefficient 4.2.38, 4.3.3.7

Audio frequency 4.2.14

Audio-frequency wave 4.3.1.3

Automatic scanning 4.12.1.13

Back surface 4.12.1.2

Backing mass 4.5.2.27

Back-wall echo 4.8.27

Band filter 4.9.2.35

Band-pass filter 4.9.2.35

Bandwidth 4.8.44

Bare crystal 4.5.2.4

Bare transducer 4.5.2.4

Barium titanate 4.5.2.15

Barker code 4.8.52

Baseline 4.9.3.12

Beam 4.3.1.19

Beam axis 4.4.9

Beam displacement due to reflection 4.3.4.28

Beam divergence 4.4.13

Beam edge 4.4.11

Beam index 4.12.1.3

Beam profile 4.4.12

Beam resolution 4.12.2.20

Beam spread 4.4.13

Bell pulse 4.8.14

Bending wave 4.3.2.19

Biconcave lens 4.5.2.12

Bimorph transducer 4.5.1.38

Bottom echo 4.8.27

Bottom surface 4.12.1.2

Boundary 4.3.4.1

Broad banded device 4.8.49

Broad banded signal 4.8.48

B -scan 4.10.2

B -scan presentation 4.10.2

Bubblier device 4.5.1.23

Buffer 4.5.2.7

Buffer rod 4.5.2.24

C- scan 4.10.3

C- scan presentation 4.10.3

C able 4.9.2.38

C alibration block 4.11.18

C athode ray tube 4.9.2.19

CC D-camera 4.9.2.22

C entral ray 4.4.9

C haracteristic acoustic impedance 4.3.3.13

C haracteristic size of artificial discontinuity 4.12.2.5

C harge coupled device camera 4.9.2.22

C hord type probes 4.5.1.25

C oherent method 4.7.22

C oherent processing 4.8.56

C oherent waves 4.3.2.30

C ohesive strength 4.1.30

C ombined method 4.7.18

C ombined probe of MIA flaw detector 4.5.1.12

C ompliance 4.2.24

C ompressional wave 4.3.2.4

C ompressional wave probe 4.5.1.15

C onnector 4.9.2.37

C onstrained oscillations 4.2.17

C ontact compliance 4.6.11

C ontact flexibility 4.6.11

C ontact probe 4.5.1.19

C ontact technique 4.6.3

C ontact testing technique 4.12.1.5

C ontact tip 4.5.2.25

C ontrols 4.9.2.39

C onventional height of defect 4.12.2.32

C onventional length of defect 4.12.2.30

C onventional sensitivity 4.12.2.13

C onventional size of defect 4.12.2.29

C onventional width of defect 4.12.2.31

C orner effect 4.3.4.27

C orner reflector 4.11.10

C ountered probe 4.5.1.24

C ouplant 4.6.2

C ouplant path 4.12.1.20

C oupling coefficient 4.5.3.25

C oupling film 4.6.2

C oupling losses 4.6.14

C oupling medium 4.6.2

C reeping wave 4.3.2.21

C rest 4.3.3.11

C ritical angle 4.3.4.23

C ross-talk 4.8.37

C RT 4.9.2.19

C rystal 4.5.1.3 , 4.5.2.2

C urie point 4.5.3.27

C ut-off frequency 4.8.42

C ylindrical angle reflector 4.11.14

C ylindrical wave 4.3.2.3

D

DAC 4.9.2.31

DAC characteristic 4.9.3.17

Damper 4.5.2.7

Damping element 4.5.2.7

dB 4.9.3.9

Dead zone 4.12.2.24

Decibel 4.9.3.9

Defect 4.11.1

Defectogram 4.10.8

Deformation of solid 4.1.8

Delay line 4.5.2.24

Delay path 4.5.3.34

Delayed sweep 4.9.3.13

Delta method 4.7.13

Depth meter 4.9.2.28

Depth of defect 4.12.2.28

Depth of focus 4.4.19

Detector 4.9.2.10

DOS-diagram 4.12.2.34

Diaphragm 4.5.2.6

Differential combined probe of MIA flaw detector 4.5.1.13

Diffraction 4.3.1.15

Diffraction wave 4.3.2.25

Digital acoustic holography 4.7.40

Digital indicator 4.9.2.24

Digital processing 4.8.55

Digit-to-analog converter 4.9.2.31

Direct scan 4.12.1.6

Directivity characteristic 4.5.3.7, 4.5.3.8

Directivity characteristic width 4.5.3.12

Directivity function 4.5.3.7

Discontinuity 4.11.2

Discontinuity detection by echo method 4.12.2.1

Discontinuity detection bythrough transmission

(mirror through transmission) method 4.12.2.2

Dispersion wave 4.3.2.26

Displacement 4.2.7

Display 4.9.2.18

Display level 4.12.2.36

Distance amplitude correction curve (DAC) 4.9.3.16

Distance-gain-size diagram 4.12.2.34

Divergence angle 4.4.14

Doppler effect 4.3.3.17

Double probe technique 4.12.1.17

Double (twin) probe 4.5.1.14

Dry contact 4.6.7

Dry point contact 4.6.8

Dry point contact probe 4.5.1.26

D -scan presentation 4.10.4

Dual probe 4.5.1.14

Dual search unit 4.5.1.14

Duet probe connection 4.12.1.19

Dynamic contact flexibility 4.6.13

Dynamic range 4.9.3.7

Dynamic range of time variable gain 4.9.3.18

E

Echo height 4.8.26

Echo method 4.7.11

Echo receiving point 4.12.1.22

Echo signal 4.8.25

Echo-mirror method 4.7.15

Effective acoustic center 4.4.7

Effective transducer size 4.5.3.33

Elastic anisotropy 4.1.6

Elastic body 4.1.3

Elastic deformation 4.1.11

Elastic force 4.1.18

Elastic impedance 4.2.28

Elastic medium 4.1.4

Elastic oscillations 4.2.6

Elastic wave 4.3.1.1

Elasticity 4.1.2

ELD 4.9.2.21

Electric load 4.5.3.22

Electrical noise 4.8.36

Electro-acoustical transducer 4.5.1.1

Electrodynamic transducer 4.5.1.29

Electro-luminescent indicator 4.9.2.21

Electromagnetic acoustic transducer 4.5.1.29

Electromechanical coupling coefficient 4.5.3.25

Electronic block 4.9.2.3

Electrostatic transducer 4.5.1.30

EMAT 4.5.1.29

Emission pulse 4.8.24

Energy reflection coefficient 4.3.4.12

Energy transmission coefficient 4.3.4.19

Entry surface 4.12.1.1

Equilibrium 4.2.5

Equivalent area of discontinuity 4.12.2.7

Equivalent sensitivity 4.12.2.11

Equivalent size of discontinuity 4.12.2.6

Examination area 4.12.1.24

Examination level of sensitivity 4.12.2.17

Examination volume 4.12.1.23

Exciter of transmitting transducer 4.9.2.12

Expended time-base sweep 4.9.3.13

External force 4.1.16

F

Far field 4.4.3

Fast Fourier transform 4.8.23

FFT 4.8.23

Filter 4.9.2.32

First critical angle 4.3.4.24

First harmonic 4.2.32

Flat bottom hole 4.11.8

Flaw marker 4.9.2.29

Flaw model 4.11.7

Flexibility 4.2.24

Flexing piezoelectric element 4.5.1.38

Flexural wave 4.3.2.19

Focal distance 4.4.18

Focal point 4.4.16

Focal zone 4.4.19

Focus 4.4.16

Focus of dual search unit 4.4.17

Focusing crystal 4.5.2.9

Focusing of acoustic field 4.4.15

Focusing probe 4.5.1.33

Focusing transducer 4.5.2.9

Forced oscillations 4.2.17

Fourier transform (in space domain) 4.8.21

Fourier transform (in time domain) 4.8.20

Fraunhofer zone 4.4.3

Free oscillations 4.2.18

Free vibration method 4.7.35

Free vibrations 4.2.18

Frequency 4.2.12

Frequency limit 4.8.42

Frequency of maximum conversion 4.5.3.20

Frequency response 4.5.3.18

Frequency spectrum 4.8.16

Fresnel-zone 4.4.2

Frictional noise 4.8.39

Front resolution 4.12.2.21

Front surface reflection 4.8.29

F -scan presentation 4.10.6

Fundamental frequency 4.2.32

G

Gain 4.9.3.1, 4.9.3.2

Gain control 4.9.3.3

Gap testing technique 4.6.5

Gate 4.9.2.15

Gate level 4.9.3.21

Gate pulse generator 4.9.2.16

General purpose test equipment 4.9.1.16

Generalized force 4.1.14

Grass cutting 4.9.2.11

Group velocity 4.3.3.2

H

Half-amplitude technique 4.12.2.38

Harmonic 4.2.33

Harmonical oscillation 4.2.19

Head wave 4.3.2.21

HF amplifier 4.9.2.7

High frequency filter 4.9.2.34

High-pass filter 4.9.2.34

Holographic presentation 4.7.39

Homogeneous medium 4.1.1

Housing 4.5.2.28

I

I mmersion probe 4.5.1.20

I mmersion technique 4.6.4

I mmersion technique 4.7.17

I mperfection 4.11.1

I ncident wave 4.3.4.2

I ncoherent method 4.7.23

I ndication zone 4.12.2.27

I ndicator 4.9.2.18

I ndirect scan 4.12.1.7

I ndispersion wave 4.3.2.27

I nertial impedance 4.2.27

I nhomogeneous wave 4.3.1.14

I nitial pulse 4.8.30

I ntegral free vibration method 4.7.36

I ntegral natural vibration method 4.7.31

I ntegral resonance method 4.7.32

I nterface 4.3.4.1

I nternal force 4.1.17

I nverse Fourier transform 4.8.22

I sotropic material 4.1.5

I sotropic medium 4.1.5

J

Jet probe 4.5.1.22

Jet technique 4.6.6

Key-board 4.9.2.40

L

L amb wave of zero order 4.3.2.18

L amb wave probe 4.5.1.18

L amb wave 4.3.2.14

L ap 4.5.2.26

L ateral wave 4.3.2.22

LC D 4.9.2.20

L ead metaniobate 4.5.2.17

L ead zirconate-titanate 4.5.2.16

L imit of elasticity 4.1.25

L imit of proportionality 4.1.24

L inear element of a body 4.1.7

L inear frequency-modulated signal 4.8.51

L inear oscillating system 4.2.20

L inearphased array 4.5.1.35

L iquid crystal display 4.9.2.20

L iquid crystal indicator 4.9.2.20

L ithium niobate 4.5.2.20

L ithium sulphate 4.5.2.19

L ocal free vibration method 4.7.37

L ocal natural vibration method 4.7.33

L ocal resonance method 4.7.34

L ogarithmic amplifier 4.9.2.9

L ogarithmic decrement 4.2.39

L ongitudinal wave 4.3.2.4

L ongitudinal wave in a rod 4.3.2.20

L ongitudinal wave probe 4.5.1.15

L ove wave 4.3.2.23

L ow frequency filter 4.9.2.33

L ow-pass filter 4.9.2.33

M

M agnetostrictive transducer 4.5.1.31

M ain lobe of directivity characteristic 4.5.3.9

M anual scanning 4.12.1.12

M ass 4.2.23

M atching layer 4.5.2.14

M atching transducer to the electric load 4.5.3.23

M atching transducer to the media 4.5.2.13

M aterial Q-factor 4.3.3.12

M aximum operation temperature 4.5.3.28

M aximum sensitivity of receiver 4.9.3.6

M easuring attenuator 4.9.2.27

M echanical force 4.1.15

M echanical impedance 4.2.22

M echanical impedance analysis flaw detector 4.9.1.11

M echanical impedance analysis method 4.7.27

M etal plated crystal 4.5.2.3

M etal plated transducer 4.5.2.3

MI A flaw detector 4.9.1.11

MI A method 4.7.27

M irror through transmission method 4.7.16

M ode conversion 4.3.4.20

M onitor 4.9.2.26

M onitor hysteresis 4.9.3.22

M onitor level 4.9.3.21

M onitor speed 4.9.3.23

M ultiple echo 4.3.4.8

M ultiple echos 4.8.31

M ultiple reflections 4.3.4.8

M ultiple-echo technique 4.7.14

N

Narrow banded device 4.8.47

Narrow banded signal 4.8.46

Natural frequency 4.2.31

Natural vibration method 4.7.30

Near field 4.4.2

Needle instrument 4.9.2.23

Neper 4.9.3.10

Node 4.3.3.10

Noise 4.8.33, 4.8.34

Noise diagnostics method 4.7.51

Noise suppression 4.9.2.11

Nominal angle of probe 4.5.3.5

Nominal frequency 4.5.3.6

Noncontact probe 4.5.1.27

Noncontacting technique 4.6.9

Non-linear acoustic method 4.7.48

Non-linear oscillating system 4.2.21

Normal incidence 4.3.4.4

Normal probe 4.5.1.8

Normal stress 4.1.20

Normal wave 4.3.2.13

Notch 4.11.11, 4.11.12

Operation frequency 4.5.3.13

Optical laser transducer 4.5.1.39

Optimal filter 4.8.53

Optimum frequency 4.12.2.26

Orbital scanning 4.12.1.8

Oscillating system 4.2.4

Oscillating value 4.2.2

Oscillation 4.2.1

Oscillation cycle 4.2.9

Oscillation frequency 4.2.12

Overtone 4.2.36

P

Parasitic echo 4.8.32

Particle velocity 4.2.8

Particle velocity 4.3.1.5

Passive acoustic method 4.7.4

Path difference 4.3.3.16

Path length 4.3.3.15

Period 4.2.10

Periodic oscillation 4.2.3

Phase 4.2.16

Phase spectrum 4.8.19

Phase velocity 4.3.3.1

Phased array 4.5.1.34

Phase-manipulated signal 4.8.50

Photoacoustic imagery 4.7.47

Photoacoustic microscopy 4.7.47

Piezoelectric constants 4.5.3.24

Piezoelectric element 4.5.2.2

Piezoelectric modulus 4.5.3.26

Piezoelectric probe 4.5.1.5

Piezoelectricity 4.5.2.1

Pitch and catch 4.12.1.17

Plane of incidence 4.3.2.8

Plane wave 4.3.2.1

Plane-concave lens 4.5.2.11

Plastic deformation 4.1.12

Plate wave 4.3.2.14

Polarization 4.3.2.10

Polling voltage 4.5.3.29

Polyvinildenftoride 4.5.2.21

Pre-amplifier 4.9.2.6

Pressure 4.1.22

Probe 4.5.1.2

Probe axis 4.4.8

Probe case 4.5.2.28

Probe casing 4.5.2.28

Probe conversion coefficient 4.5.3.16

Probe damping factor 4.5.3.31

Probe double conversion coefficient 4.5.3.17

Probe index 4.5.3.2

Probe operating surface 4.5.3.1

Probe orientation 4.12.1.21

Probe transfer function 4.5.3.15

Probes bandwidth 4.5.3.19

Protected crystal 4.5.2.5

Protected transducer 4.5.2.5

P-scan presentation 4.10.5

Pulse 4.8.2

Pulse amplitude 4.8.5

Pulse center frequency 4.8.45

Pulse duration 4.8.6

Pulse echo flaw detector 4.9.1.9

Pulse envelope 4.8.8

Pulse generator 4.9.2.13

Pulse length 4.8.6

Pulse repetition frequency 4.8.10

Pulse repetition rate 4.8.10

Pulse shape 4.8.7

Pulse spatial length 4.8.9

Pulse spectrum 4.8.17

PVDF 4.5.2.21

PZT 4.5.2.16

Q

Q-factor 4.2.37

Quality factor 4.2.37

Quartz 4.5.2.18

Quasibend of acoustic axis 4.4.10

R

Radio-frequency amplifier 4.9.2.7

Radio-frequency pulse 4.8.4

Ray 4.3.1.19

Rayleigh wave 4.3.2.7

Rayleigh wave probe 4.5.1.17

Real sensitivity 4.12.2.10

Receiver 4.9.2.4

Receiver frequency characteristic 4.9.3.8

Receiver sensitivity 4.9.3.5

Receiving probe 4.5.1.7

Recording level 4.12.2.16

Rectangular pulse 4.8.13

Rectified signal 4.8.11

Reference block 4.11.19

Reference block method 4.12.2.37

Reference echo 4.12.2.18

Reference level 4.12.2.18

Reference reflector 4.11.6

Reflected wave 4.3.4.7

Reflection 4.3.4.6

Reflection coefficient 4.3.4.11

Reflection method 4.7.11

Reflectivity of discontinuity 4.12.2.3

Reflector 4.11.3

Reflectoscope 4.9.1.9

Refracted wave 4.3.4.15

Refraction 4.3.4.14, 4.3.4.22

Refractive index 4.3.4.17

Reject 4.9.2.11

Reporting level 4.12.2.16

Resolution 4.12.2.19

Resonance frequency 4.2.34

Resonance thickness gauge 4.9.1.15

Response characteristic 4.8.41

Reverberation 4.3.4.9

Reverberation method 4.7.14

RF amplifier 4.9.2.7

R-F signal 4.8.12

Ring phased array 4.5.1.37

Run round wave 4.3.2.28

Running wave 4.3.1.10

Rupture limit 4.1.28

S

SAFT 4.7.42

SAFT FFT 4.7.43

Scale expansion 4.9.3.13

Scanning 4.12.1.4

Scanning device 4.9.2.1

Scanning direction 4.12.1.11

Scanning index 4.12.1.14

Scanning speed 4.12.1.15

Scanning surface 4.12.1.1

Scattering 4.3.3.6

Scattering coefficient 4.3.3.9

Scattering indicatrix of flaw 4.12.2.33

Screen marker 4.10.9

Search unit 4.5.1.2

Searchlight zone 4.4.5

Second critical angle 4.3.4.25

Segmental reflector 4.11.16

Send/receive probe 4.5.1.14

Sensitivity 4.12.2.8

Sensitivity level 4.12.2.14

SH wave 4.3.2.12

Shear horizontal wave 4.3.2.12

Shear strain 4.1.10

Shear stress 4.1.21

Shear vertical wave 4.3.2.11

Shear wave 4.3.2.5

Shear wave probe 4.5.1.16

Shoe 4.5.2.8

Side drilled hole 4.11.9

Side lobes level 4.5.3.11

Side lobes of directivity characteristic 4.5.3.10

Signal 4.8.1

Signal amplitude 4.8.26

Signal processing block 4.9.2.42

Signal-to-noise ratio 4.8.40

Single crystal probe 4.5.1.11

Single probe technique 4.12.1.16

Single traverse scan 4.12.1.6

Slide off wave 4.3.2.29

Snells low 4.3.4.21

Software 4.9.2.41

Sonic flaw detector 4.9.1.2

Sonic method 4.7.1

Sonic wave 4.3.1.3

Sound field 4.4.1

Sound beam 4.4.6

Sound pressure 4.3.1.4

Sound velocity 4.3.1.6

Special purpose test equipment 4.9.1.17

Spectrum analyzer 4.9.2.36

Spherical reflector 4.11.13

Spherical wave 4.3.2.2

Spiral scanning 4.12.1.10

Spurious echo 4.8.32

Square pulse 4.8.13

Squirter probe 4.5.1.22

Squirter technique 4.6.6

Stack 4.5.3.30

Standoff 4.5.2.24

Standard acoustic load of probe 4.11.17

Standard signal level 4.9.3.4

Standing wave 4.3.1.11

Static contact flexibility 4.6.12

Stationary wave 4.3.1.11

Stiffness 4.2.25

Stoneley wave 4.3.2.24

Straight beam probe 4.5.1.8

Stress 4.1.19

Structural noise 4.8.35

Surface wave 4.3.2.7

Surface wave probe 4.5.1.17

SV wave 4.3.2.11

Sweep 4.9.3.11

Sweep generator 4.9.2.14

Swept gain 4.9.3.16

Swivel scanning 4.12.1.9

Symmetrical Lamb wave 4.3.2.16

Sync generator 4.9.2.25

Synthetic aperture focusing technique 4.7.42

Synthetic aperture technique 4.7.41

System with distributed parameters 4.2.30

System with lumped parameters 4.2.29

Tandem probe connection 4.12.1.18

Tandem technique 4.7.24

Tandem-duet technique 4.7.26

Tandem-T technique 4.7.25

Tangential stress 4.1.21

Tension-compression strain 4.1.9

Tensor of deformation 4.1.13

Tensor of stress 4.1.23

Test frequency 4.12.2.25

Test surface 4.12.1.1

Testing productivity 4.12.2.22

Testing sensitivity 4.12.2.8

Thermal noise 4.8.38

Third critical angle 4.3.4.26

Threshold of acoustic sensitivity 4.12.2.9

Through signal 4.8.28

Through transmission flaw detector 4.9.1.10

Through transmission method (technique) 4.7.5, 4.7.6, 4.7.7, 4.7.8, 4.7.9

Time base adjustment 4.9.3.15

Time base range 4.9.3.14

Time corrected gain 4.9.3.16

Time gate 4.9.2.15

Time of flight diffraction method 4.7.12

Time variable gain 4.9.3.16

Time variable gain characteristic 4.9.3.17

TOFD method 4.7.12

Tomographic presentation 4.10.10

Total reflection 4.3.4.13

Transceiver 4.5.1.11

Transducer 4.5.1.3

Transducer array probe 4.5.1.34

Transducer backing 4.5.2.7

Transducer mosaic 4.5.1.32

Transducer size 4.5.3.32

Transducers bandwidth 4.5.3.19

Transitive zone 4.4.4

Transmission coefficient 4.3.4.18

Transmission factor 4.8.43

Transmission point 4.8.29

Transmission pulse indication 4.8.30

Transmission technique 4.7.5

Transmitting probe 4.5.1.6

Transparency of discontinuity 4.12.2.4

Transverse wave 4.3.2.5

Transverse wave probe 4.5.1.16

Triangular pulse 4.8.15

Two parametric signal processing 4.8.57

U

UCI hardness meter 4.9.1.6

UCI method 4.7.28

Ultimate strength 4.1.27

Ultimate strength 4.1.28

Ultrasonic beam 4.4.6

Ultrasonic contact impedance method (technique 4.7.28

Ultrasonic flaw detector 4.9.1.3

Ultrasonic frequency 4.2.15

Ultrasonic hardness meter 4.9.1.6

Ultrasonic method 4.7.2

Ultrasonic structure analyzer 4.9.1.8

Ultrasonic thickness gauge 4.9.1.5

Ultrasonic tomography 4.7.44

Ultrasonic wave 4.3.1.2

Ultrasound lock-in-thermography 4.7.46

Untested zone 4.12.2.23

Usable sensitivity 4.12.2.12

V

V ariable angle probe 4.5.1.10

V elocimetric flaw detector 4.9.1.12

V elocimetric method 4.7.10

V elocity dispersion 4.3.3.3

V elocity of propagation 4.3.1.6

V ibration diagnostics method 4.7.50

V ibrations 4.2.6

V ibrator 4.5.1.4

V ideo pulse 4.8.3

V oltage (current) used for probe excitation 4.9.3.20

V olume scan presentation 4.10.7

V olumetric wave 4.3.2.6

W

Wave amplitude 4.3.1.7

Wave attenuation 4.3.3.4

Wave conversion 4.3.4.20

Waveguide 4.5.2.29

Wave intensity 4.3.1.8

Wave interference 4.3.1.16

Wave mode 4.3.2.15

Wave number 4.3.1.12

Wave phase 4.3.1.17

Wave reflection 4.3.4.6

Wave train 4.3.1.20

Wave transformation 4.3.4.20

Wave vector 4.3.1.13

Wavefront 4.3.1.18

Wavelength 4.3.1.9

Wear face 4.5.2.6

Wear plate 4.5.2.6

Wedge 4.5.2.8

Wedge angle 4.5.3.3

Wheel probe 4.5.1.21

X

X - cut crystal 4.5.2.22

X - value 4.5.3.14

Y

Y -cut crystal 4.5.2.23

Yield strength 4.1.26

Z

Zero point 4.8.29

4

1 . 23829-79. . .

2 . 23829-85 . . .

3 . 14782-86 . . . .

4 . 18576-85 . . . .

5 . 26266-90 . . . .

6 . 24507-80 . . . .

7 . 28702-90 . . . .

8 . 23049-84. . . .

9 . 4.177-85 . . . .

10 . BS EN 1330-4:2000. Non-destructive testing - Terminology - Part 4: Terms used in ultrasonic testing.

11 . Standard Terminology for Ultrasonic testing. Adopted from ASTM E 1316-98.

12 . Glossary of terms and definitions for ultrasonic testing procedures. MIL-STD-371, 1992.

13 . Nondestructive Testing Handbook. Second Edition. V.7. Ultrasonic Testing. ASNT . 1991. 893 c .

14 . : / . . .. . .: , 1979. 400 .

15 . .., .. . .: , 1980. 512 .

16 . / . . .. . .: , 1965. . 3. 528 .

17 . .., .., .. : . .: +, 2000. 108 .

18 . .., .. : . . ., 2001. 170 .

19 . : 5 . . 2. : / .. , .. , .. ; . .. . .: . ., 1991. 283 .

20 . . .: , 1960.

21 . / .. , .. , .. .; . .. . .: , 1989. 456 .

22 . .. : . .: . ., 1978. 448 .

23 . . . // / . . . . I . . . . .: , 1966. 592 .

24 . .., .. . .: , 1965. 204 .

25 . .. . .: , 1970. 544 .

26 . 22727-88 . . .

27 . 27655-88 . . , . .: - , 1988.

5 .

5.1 . ( Eddy current nondestructive testing ) - HK , , .

5.2 . ( Eddy current probe ) - , , .

5.3 . ( Initial electromotive force of eddy current probe ) - .

5.4 . ( Added electromotive force of eddy current probe ) - , .

5.5 . ( Added relative electromotive force of eddy current probe ) - .

5.6 . ( Added voltage of eddy current probe ) - , .

5.7 . ( Added resistance of eddy current probe ) - , .

5.8 . ( Complex plane of eddy current probe ) - , , , - .

5.9 . ( Hodograph diagram of eddy current probe ) - , , , , , , .

5.10 . ( Impedance diagram of eddy current probe ) - , , , , , , ().

5.1 1 . ( Eddy current probe signal ) - (, ), .

5.12 . ( Electromagnetic field penetration depth of eddy current signal ) - , = 2,73 , .

5.13 . ( Generalised parameter of eddy current testing ) - , , ,

,

R - ;

ω - ;

0 - , 0=4π∙10-6;

- ;

Q - .

5.14 . ( Locality of eddy current testing ) - , .

5.15 . ( Exciting current of eddy current probe ) - .

5.16 . ( Exciting current frequency of eddy current probe ) - .

5.17 . / ( Signal - to - noise ratio of eddy current probe ) - , , .

5.18 . ( Test parameter of eddy current testing ) - , .

5.19 . ( Stray parameter of eddy current testing ) - , , .

5.20 . ( Sensitivity to test parameter at eddy current testing ) - .

5.21 . ( Suppression at eddy current testing ) - .

5.22 . ( Suppression direction at eddy current testing ) - , , .

5.23 . ( Amplitude method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , .

5.24 . ( Phase method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - HK , .

5.25 . - ( Amplitude - phase method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , .

5.26 . ( Frequency method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , , .

5.27 . ( Multi frequency method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , () , .

5.28 . - ( Variable - frequency method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , () .

5.29 . ( Pulse method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , () , .

5.30 . ( Absolute method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , , .

5.31 . ( Modulation method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , , , .

5.32 . ( Differential method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , , .

5.33 . ( Spectral method of eddy current nondestructive testing ) - , .

5.34 . ( Drive winding of eddy ) - , .

5.35 . ( Measuring winding of eddy current probe ) - , .

5.36 . ( Compensating winding of eddy current probe ) - , , .

5.37 . ( Eddy current probe lift - off ) - .

5.38 . ( Design lift - off of eddy current probe ) - .

5.39 . ( Equivalent turn of eddy current probe winding ) - , ,

,

D - ;

;

D - ;

D - .

5.40 . ( Signal compensator of eddy current probe ) - , .

5.41 . ( Protection unit of eddy current probe ) - , , , , , , , .

5.42 . ( Surface eddy current probe ) - , .

5.43 . ( Screening eddy current probe ) - , .

5.44 . ( Encircling eddy current probe ) - , , , , .

5.45 . ( Encircling external eddy current probe ) - , .

5.46 . ( Encircling internal eddy current probe ) - , .

5.47 . ( Fill factor of encircling eddy current probe ) - , :

η= S / S .. S .. £ S .. ;

η= S / S .. S .. £ S .. ,

S .. , S .. - .

5.48 . ( Composite eddy current probe ) - , , .

5.49 . ( Parametric eddy current probe ) - , , .

5.50 . - , ( ) .

5.51 . ( Absolute eddy current probe ) - , .

5.52 . ( Differential eddy current probe ) - , .

5.53 . ( Base of differential eddy current probe ) - , .

5.54 . ( Relative base of differential eddy current probe ) , .

5.55 . - , , .

5.56 . ( Multiple - unit eddy current probe ) - , , , .

5.57 . ( Compensating voltage of eddy current probe ) - , .

5.58 . ( Reference voltage of eddy current probe ) - , .

5.59 . ( Eddy current thickness gauge ) - , .

5.60 . ( Eddy current structuroscope ) - , - , , .

5.61 . ( Eddy current flaw detector ) - , .

5.62 . ( Sensitivity threshold of eddy current flaw detector ) - , / .

5.63 . ( End effect at eddy current testing ) - , .

5.64 . ( Lift - off effect at eddy current testing ) - , .

5.65 . ( Velocity effect at eddy current testing ) - , , .

5.66 . ( Background noise ) - , ( ).

5.67 . ( Balance ) - , , , .

5.68 . ( Bandwidth ) - , . , 3 . , , .

5.69 . ( Bucking signal ) - , .

5.70 . ( Coupling factor ) - . .

5.71 . ( Demodulated signal ) - .

5.72 . ( Differentiated signal ) - .

5.73 . - .

5.74 . ( Eddy currents ) - , .

5.75 . ( Effective depth of penetration ) - , .

5.76 . ( Effective permeability ) - , , . .

5.77 . ( Electromagnetic coupling ) - . .

5.78 . , ( Excitation , induction ) - ( in phase demodulation ).

5.79 . - ( In phase demodulation ) - () .

5.80 . ( Instrument noise ) - , .

5.81 . ( Interference noise ) - , , .

5.82 . ( Law of similarity ) - , , .

5.83 . ( Loaded coil impedance ) - , .

5.84 . ( Normalized impedance plane diagram ) - , (, , , ).

5.85 . ( Normalized reactance ) - , . .

5.86 . ( Normalized resistance ) - , .

5.87 . , ( Phase angle of a signal ) - , , , . .

5.88 . ( Phase reference ) - , .

5.89 . ( Pulsed eddy currents ) - , .

5.90 . ( Resultant magnetic field ) - , .

5.91 . ( Signature ) - , .

5.92 . - ( Skin effect ) - .

. , .

5.93 . ( Standard depth of penetration ) - , 37 % .

, ,

,

δ - ;

f - ;

s - ;

- ;

0 - .

5.94 . ( Synchronous demodulation ) - , , .

5.95 . ( Absolute measurement ) - , . , - .

5.96 . ( Absolute signal ) - .

5.97 . ( Comparative measurement ) - , .

5.98 . ( Comparative measurement with external reference ) - , .

5.99 . ( Comparative measurement with local reference ) - , .

5.100 . ( Comparative signal ) - .

5.101 . ( Differential measurement ) - , .

5.102 . ( Differential signal ) - .

5.103 . ( Arrangement ) - .

5.104 . ( Additive magnetic flux probe ) - , .

5.105 . ( Coil fill factor ) - . .

5.106 . ( Coil length ) - .

5.107 . ( Coil separation ) - .

5.108 . ( Coil spacing ) - . .

5.109 . ( Coil turns ) - .

5.110 . ( Comparative arrangement ) - , .

5.111 . ( Comparator probe ) - , .

5.112 . ( Compensation coil ) - .

5.113 . ( Core ) - , .

5.114 . ( Effective coil diameter ) - , , , .

5.115 . , ( Excitation field , primary field ) - , .

5.116 . ( Ferrite ) - , .

5.117 . ( Ferromagnetic cored probe ) - , .

5.118 . ( Permanent magnet probe ) - , .

5.119 . , ( Primary coil , excitation element ) - , .

5.120 . ( Probe array ) - , , .

5.121 . ( Probe fill factor ) - .

.

5.122 . ( Reference probe ) - , .

5.123 . ( Rotating probe ) - , .

5.124 . ( Screen , shield ) - , , .

5.125 . , ( Secondary coil , receiving element ) - () , , .

5.126 . ( Secondary field ) - , .

5.127 . ( Shield probe ) - .

5.128 . ( Yoked coil ) - , .

5.129 . ( Zone of interaction ) - , .

5.130 . ( Complex plane display ) - , , , - .

5.131 . ( Demagnetisation unit ) - , .

5.132 . ( Demodulator ) - , .

5.133 . ( Display area ) - .

5.134 . ( Eddy current testing system ) - , , , .

5.135 . ( Excitation power amplifier ) - , , .

5.136 . ( Filter ) - , .

5.137 . ( Gate ) - , .

5.138 . ( Generator unit ) - , .

5.139 . ( Integrator ) - , .

5.140 . ( Measurement channel ) - , . , .

5.141 . ( Measurement unit ) - , .

5.142 . ( Multi channel instrument ) - .

5.143 . ( Multi frequency instrument ) - , .

5.144 . ( Multi parameter instrument ) - , .

5.145 . ( Phase shifter ) - , .

5.146 . - ( Probe pusher puller unit ) - , .

5.147 . ( Rotating head ) - , .

5.148 . ( Saturation coil ) - , , .

5.149 . ( Saturation unit ) - , , .

5.150 . , ( Time synchronous display ) - , . .

5.151 . ( Approaching technique ) - , , .

5.152 . ( Area of coverage ) - , .

. .

5.153 . ( Balanced bridge technique ) - , .

5.154 . ( Dynamic currents ) - , .

5.155 . ( Dynamic measurement ) - , .

5.156 . ( End effect ) - , .

5.157 . ( Geometric effect ) - , .

5.158 . ( Incremental permeability technique ) - , . .

5.159 . ( Input effect ) - , .

5.160 . ( Length of coverage ) - , .

. .

5.161 . ( Operating point ) - , .

5.162 . ( Output effect ) - , .

5.163 . , ( Phase setting , phase adjustment ) - , /.

5.164 . ( Point of return technique ) - , .

5.165 . ( Rotating field technique ) - , , .

5.166 . ( Scanning path ) - , .

5.167 . ( Scanning plan ) - , .

5.168 . ( Sorting class ) - , , .

5.169 . ( Static measurement ) - , , .

5.170 . ( Surface speed ) - .

5.171 . ( Test parameters ) - , .

5.172 . ( Throughput speed ) - .

5.173 . ( Tilt effect ) - , .

5.174 . ( Width of coverage ) - , , .

. .

5.175 . ( Wobble ) - , , .

5.176 . ( Amplitude analysis ) - .

5.177 . ( Analysis of signal dynamics ) - .

5.178 . ( Complex plane analysis ) - , .

5.179 . ( Component analysis ) - .

5.180 . ( Dynamics analysis ) - , .

5.181 . ( Elliptical display method ) - , , , , , - .

5.182 . ( Gating technique ) - .

5.183 . ( Group analysis ) - , .

5.184 . ( Harmonic analysis ) - , ( , ) .

5.185 . ( Modulation analysis ) - .

5.186 . ( Phase analysis ) - , .

5.187 . ( Regression analysis ) - , , , .

5.188 . ( Sectonal analysis ) - , .

5

( Absolute measurement ) 5.95

( Absolute eddy current probe ) 5.51

(Absolute method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.30

(Absolute signal) 5.96

- (In phase demodulation) 5.79

-

(Amplitude-phase method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.25

(Amplitude analysis) 5.176

(Amplitude method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.23

( Complex plane analysis ) 5.178

(Analysis of signal dynamics) 5.177

(Component analysis) 5.179

(Base of differential eddy current probe) 5.53

(Balance) 5.67

(Protection unit of eddy current probe) 5.41

(Saturation unit) 5.149

-

(Probe pusher puller unit) 5.146

(Eddy currents) 5.74

(Eddy current flaw detector) 5.61

(Eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.1

( Eddy current probe ) 5.2

( Comparator probe ) 5.111

(Additive magnetic flux probe) 5.104

(Permanent magnet probe) 5.118

(Ferromagnetic cored probe) 5.117

(Eddy current structuroscope) 5.60

(Eddy current thickness gauge) 5.59

(Added electromotive force of eddy current probe) 5.4

(Added voltage of eddy current probe) 5.6

(Added resistance of eddy current probe) 5.7

(Encircling internal eddy current probe) 5.46

, (Excitation field, primary field) 5.115

, (Excitation, induction) 5.78

( Rotating head ) 5.147

( Rotating probe ) 5.123

,

(Secondary coil, receiving element) 5.125

(Secondary field) 5.126

(Harmonic analysis) 5.184

(Generator unit) 5.138

(Geometric effect) 5.157

(Electromagnetic field penetration depth

of eddy current signal) 5.12

(Hodograph diagram of eddy current probe) 5.9

( Group analysis ) 5.183

( Demodulated signal ) 5.71

( Demodulator ) 5.132

(Impedance diagram of eddy current probe) 5.10

(Normalized impedance plane diagram) 5.84

( Dynamic currents ) 5.154

( Dynamics analysis ) 5.180

( Dynamic measurement ) 5.155

( Differential measurement ) 5.101

(Differential eddy current probe) 5.52

(Differential method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.32

(Differential signal) 5.102

(Differentiated signal) 5.72

(Length of coverage) 5.160

( Coil length ) 5.106

( Wobble ) 5.175

( Eddy current probe lift - off ) 5.37

(Law of similarity) 5.82

( Zone of interaction ) 5.129

(Measuring winding of eddy current probe) 5.35

(Measurement unit) 5.141

(Measurement channel) 5.140

(Display area) 5.133

(Complex plane display) 5.130

, ( Time synchronous display ) 5.150

( Pulsed eddy currents ) 5.89

(Pulse method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.29

(Integrator) 5.139

(Coil spacing) 5.108

( Sorting class ) 5.168

( Composite eddy current probe ) 5.48

(Signal compensator of eddy current probe) 5.40

( Compensation coil ) 5.112

(Compensating winding of eddy current probe) 5.36

(Compensating voltage of eddy current probe) 5.57

( Bucking signal ) 5.69

(Complex plane of eddy current probe) 5.8

( Loaded coil impedance ) 5.83

(Design lift-off of eddy current probe) 5.38

(Test parameter of eddy current testing) 5.18

(End effect) 5.156

(Coupling factor) 5.70

(Probe fill factor) 5.121

(Fill factor of encircling eddy current probe) 5.47

( Coil fill factor ) 5.105

(End effect at eddy current testing) 5.63

(Locality of eddy current testing) 5.14

( Probe array ) 5.120

( Elliptical display method ) 5.181

(Stray parameter of eddy current testing) 5.19

(Multi channel instrument) 5.142

(Multi parameter instrument) 5.144

(Multi frequency method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.27

(Multi frequency instrument) 5.143

(Multiple-unit eddy current probe) 5.56

(Modulation analysis) 5.185

(Modulation method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.31

( Surface eddy current probe ) 5.42

(Suppression direction at eddy current testing) 5.22

(Encircling external eddy current probe) 5.45

, (Phase setting, phase adjustment) 5.163

(Initial electromotive force of eddy current probe) 5.3

(Drive winding of eddy) 5.34

(Saturation coil) 5.148

( Yoked coil ) 5.128

(Generalised parameter of eddy current testing) 5.13

( Signature ) 5.91

5.55

( Phase reference ) 5.88

(Reference voltage of eddy current probe) 5.58

(Relative base of differential eddy current probe) 5.54

(Added relative electromotive force of eddy current probe) 5.5

( Throughput speed ) 5.172

( Normalized reactance ) 5.85

( Normalized resistance ) 5.86

/

(Signal-to-noise ratio of eddy current probe) 5.17

(Suppression at eddy current testing) 5.21

( Parametric eddy current probe ) 5.49

( Test parameters ) 5.171

,

(Primary coil, excitation element) 5.119

-

(Variable-frequency method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.28

( Scanning plan ) 5.167

( Area of coverage ) 5.152

(Sensitivity threshold of eddy current flaw detector) 5.62

(Instrument noise) 5.80

( Encircling eddy current probe ) 5.44

(Operating point) 5.161

(Demagnetisation unit) 5.131

5.73

( Coil separation ) 5.107

( Regression analysis ) 5.187

( Resultant magnetic field ) 5.90

(Comparative measurement with local reference) 5.99

(Sectoral analysis) 5.188

(Core) 5.113

(Eddy current probe signal) 5.11

(Comparative signal) 5.100

(Synchronous demodulation) 5.94

(Eddy current testing system) 5.134

- (Skin effect) 5.92

(Velocity effect at eddy current testing) 5.65

(Spectral method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.33

(Incremental permeability technique) 5.158

(Rotating field technique) 5.165

(Balanced bridge technique) 5.153

(Gating technique) 5.182

(Point of return technique) 5.164

(Approaching technique) 5.151

( Comparative measurement ) 5.97

(Comparative measurement with external reference) 5.98

(Standard depth of penetration) 5.93

(Static measurement) 5.169

(Gate) 5.137

(Arrangement) 5.103

( Comparative arrangement ) 5.110

(Exciting current of eddy current probe) 5.15

( Scanning path ) 5.166

5.50

( Excitation power amplifier ) 5.135

(Phase shifter) 5.145

(Phase analysis) 5.186

(Phase method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.24

, (Phase angle of a signal) 5.87

(Ferrite) 5.116

(Filter) 5.136

(Background noise) 5.66

(Exciting current frequency of eddy current probe) 5.16

(Frequency method of eddy current nondestructive testing) 5.26

( Coil turns ) 5.109

(Sensitivity to test parameter at eddy current testing) 5.20

(Width of coverage) 5.174

(Bandwidth) 5.68

(Equivalent turn of eddy current probe winding) 5.39

(Screen, shield) 5.124

( Shield probe ) 5.127

( Screening eddy current probe ) 5.43

( Electromagnetic coupling ) 5.77

( Interference noise ) 5.81

( Reference probe ) 5.122

( Input effect ) 5.159

( Output effect ) 5.162

(Lift-off effect at eddy current testing) 5.64

( Tilt effect ) 5.173

(Effective depth of penetration) 5.75

(Effective permeability) 5.76

( Surface speed ) 5.170

(Effective coil diameter) 5.114

6 . ()

6.1 . () ( Liquid penetrant testing ) - , .

6.2 . ( Surface discontinuity ) - .

6.3 . ( Throgh discontinuity ) - .

. , .

6.4 . ( Discontinuity opening width ) - .

. .

6.5 . ( Discontinuity length ) - .

6.6 . ( Discontinuity depth ) - .

6.7 . ( Indicator trace ) - , .

6.8 . ( Falst indicator s trace ) - , , , .

6.9 . ( Surface backgroud ) - , .

6.10 . ( Sensitiveness threshold ) - .

. , - .

6.11 . ( Sensitiveness class ) - , .

6.12 . ( Sensitiveness of set of defectoscopic materials ) - () .

6.13 . ( Inspection sensitiveness ) - , .

6.14 . ( Technological card of inspection ) - ; , , , , , , .

6.15 . ( Liquid method ) - .

6.16 . ( Coloured way ) - , .

6.17 . ( Lumenescent way ) - .

6.18 . - ( Lumenescent - coloured way ) - .

6.19 . [ Inspection ( defectoscopic ) materials ] - , , , .

6.20 . ( Set of defectoscopic materials ) - : , .

6.21 . ( Compatibility of defectoscopic materials in set ) - .

6.22 . ( Indicator penetrant ) - , .

6.23 . ( Indicator solution ) - , .

6.24 . ( Indicator suspension ) - , .

6.25 . ( Coloured penetrant ) - , .

6.26 . ( Lumenescent penetrant ) - , .

6.27 . - ( Lumenescent - coloured penetrant ) - , .

6.28 . ( Cleaner of penetrant ) - , .

6.29 . ( Extinguisher of penetrant ) - , .

6.30 . ( Developer of penetrant ) - , .

6.31 . ( Sorprion developer ) - , .

6.32 . ( Diffusion developer ) - , .

6.33 . ( Powder developer ) - , , , .

6.34 . ( Suspension developer ) - , , , , .

6.35 . ( Dye developer ) - , , .

6.36 . ( Film developer ) - , , .

6.37 . ( Equipment and apparatus ) - , , .

6.38 . ( Control sample ) - . .

6.39 . ( Set of control samples ) - , .

6.40 . ( Working control sample ) - , .

6.41 . ( Arbitration control sample ) - , .

6.42 . ( Auxilary facilities ) - (, , , , , , ..), .

6.43 . ( Defectoscopic ultraviolet lightsource ) - , .

6.44 . ( Device ror preparation of objects for the inspection ) - , .

6.45 . ( Device for defectoscopic expendables application ) - , , , .

6.46 . ( Discontinuity development intensifying device ) - , , , .

6.47 . ( Discontinuity detection device ) - , .

6.48 . ( Exposure monitoring device ) - .

6.49 . ( Technologic process monitor ) - (), ().

6.50 . ( Cleaning of surface and discontinuities , volumes of inspected object ) - .

6.51 . ( Mechanical cleaning ) - , , , , , , .

6.52 . ( Steam cleaning ) - .

6.53 . ( Swolvent cleaning ) - , , , .

6.54 . ( Chemical cleaning ) - , , .

6.55 . ( Electrochemical cleaning ) - .

6.56 . ( Ultrasonic cleaning ) - , .

. - .

6.57 . ( Thermal cleaning ) - , .

6.58 . ( Sorption cleaning ) - , , .

6.59 . ( Penetrant application ) - .

6.60 . ( Capillary filling ) - , , , , , .

6.61 . ( Vacuum filling ) - .

6.62 . ( Compression filling ) - .

6.63 . ( Ultrasonic filling ) - .

6.64 . ( Deformation filling ) - , .

6.65 . ( Penetrant excess removal ) - .

6.66 . ( Penetrant wiping removal ) - .

6.67 . ( Penetrant washing removal ) - , : , .

6.68 . ( Extinguishment removal ) - .

6.69 . ( Developer application ) - .

6.70 . ( Application by spraying ) - , .

6.71 . ( Application by air suspension ) - , .

6.72 . ( Brush application ) - , .

6.73 . ( Application by immersion ) - .

6.74 . ( Application by powdering ) - .

6.75 . ( Application by sticking ) - .

6.76 . ( Detection of indicator trace ) - .

6.77 . ( Visual revealness of indicator trace ) - , , , , - .

6.78 . ( Television indication detection ) - , , , , , - .

6.79 . ( Instrumental indication detection ) - , .

6.80 . ( Developer removal ) - .

6.81 . ( Wiping removal ) - .

6.82 . ( Washing removal ) - , , , .

6.83 . ( Ultrasonic removal ) - .

6.84 . ( Blowing removal ) - , .

6.85 . ( Burnout removal ) - .

6.86 . ( Unsticking removal ) - .

6.87 . ( Inspection results estimation ) - , .

6.88 . ( Inspection report ) - , , .

6

( Arbitration control sample ) 6.41

( Vacuum filling ) 6.61

(Visual revealness of indicator trace) 6.77

( Auxilary facilities ) 6.42

(Extinquisher of penetrant) 6.29

(Discontinuity depth) 6.6

[Inspection (defectoscopic) materials] 6.19

(Defectoscopic ultraviolet lightsource) 6.43

( Deformation filling ) 6.64

( Diffusion developer ) 6.32

(Discontinuity length) 6.5

( Liquid method ) 6.15

( Inspection report ) 6.88

(Indicator suspension) 6.24

(Indicator penetrant) 6.22

(Indicator solution) 6.23

(Indicator trace) 6.7

(Instrumental indication detection) 6.79

( Capillary filling ) 6.60

(Brush application) 6.72

( Sensitiveness class ) 6.11

( Set of control samples ) 6.39

( Compression filling ) 6.62

()

(Liquid penetrant testing) 6.1

( Control sample ) 6.38

( Dye developer ) 6.35

( Falst indicators trace ) 6.8

- ( Lumenescent - coloured penetrant ) 6.27

- ( Lumenescent - coloured way ) 6.18

( Lumenescent penetrant ) 6.26

( Lumenescent way ) 6.17

(Mechanical cleaning) 6.51

(Set of defectoscopic materials) 6.20

(Application by air suspension) 6.71

(Application by sticking) 6.75

(Penetrant application) 6.59

(Application by immersion) 6.73

(Application by powdering) 6.74

(Developer application) 6.69

(Application by spraying) 6.70

(Detection of indicator trace) 6.76

(Equipment and apparatus) 6.37

(Inspection results estimation) 6.87

(Cleaner of penetrant) 6.28

(Cleaning of surface and discontinuities, volumes of inspected object) 6.50

( Swolvent cleaning ) 6.53

( Steam cleaning ) 6.52

( Film developer ) 6.36

( Surface discontinuity ) 6.2

( Sensitiveness threshold ) 6.10

( Powder developer ) 6.33

(Developer of penetrant) 6.30

(Working control sample) 6.40

(Throgh discontinuity) 6.3

(Compatibility of defectoscopic materials in set) 6.21

(Sorption cleaning) 6.58

( Sorption developer ) 6.31

(Suspension developer) 6.34

(Television indication detection) 6.78

(Thermal cleaning) 6.57

(Technological card of inspection) 6.14

( Burnout removal ) 6.85

( Extinguishment removal ) 6.68

( Penetrant excess removal ) 6.65

( Blowing removal ) 6.84

( Unsticking removal ) 6.86

( Penetrant washing removal ) 6.67

( Penetrant wiping removal ) 6.66

( Washing removal ) 6.82

( Wiping removal ) 6.81

( Developer removal ) 6.80

( Ultrasonic cleaning ) 6.56

( Ultrasonic filling ) 6.63

( Ultrasonic removal ) 6.83

( Discontinuity detection device ) 6.47

(Discontinuity development

intensifying device) 6.46

( Exposure monitoring device ) 6.48

(Technologic process monitor) 6.49

(Device for defectoscopic expendables application) 6.45

(Device ror preparation of objects for the inspection) 6.44

(Surface backgroud) 6.9

(Chemical cleaning) 6.54

(Coloured penetrant) 6.25

(Coloured way) 6.16

(Inspection sensitiveness) 6.13

(Sensitiveness of set of defectoscopic materials) 6.12

(Discontinuity opening width) 6.4

(Electrochemical cleaning) 6.55

7 .

7.1 . ( Magnetic nondestructive testing ) - , , , .

7.2 . ( Magnetic inductive nondestructive testing ) - , .

7.3 . ( Magnetic flux - gate meter nondestructive testing ) - , .

7.4 . ( Magnetic effect Holl nondestructive testing ) - , .

7.5 . ( Magnetographic method ) - , .

7.6 . ( Pandemotor nondestructive testing ) - , , .

7.7 . ( Magnetic resistance nondestructive testing ) - , .

7.8 . ( Magnetic half - conducting nondestructive testing ) - , .

7.9 . ( Magnetic particle nondestructive inspection , magnetic particle examination ) - , , , , - .

7.10 . ( Magnetic particle examination ) - , .

7.11 . ( Magnetic structure supervision particle examination ) - , - .

7.12 . ( Magnetic defectometer nondestructive testing ) - .

7.13 . ( Magnetic field ) - , , , , .

7.14 . ( Magnetizing magnetic field ) - , .

7.15 . ( Applied magnetic field ) - , , .

7.16 . ( Residual magnetic field ) - , .

7.17 . ( Magnetic energy ) - .

7.18 . ( Magnetic density ) - , , , , , . , ( , ).

7.19 . ( Magnetic flux ) - , . , ( , Wb ).

7.20 . ( Magnetic lines of force ) - , .

7.2 1 . ( Magnetic field strength ) - , , , , . , /.

7.22 . ( Gradient magnetic field strength ) - , . /2.

7.23 . [ Normal ( perpendicular ) component magnetic field strength ] - , .

7.24 . ( Tangential component magnetic field strength ) - , .

. 3.

7.25 . ( Magnetic moment of locking plain coil ) - , , . , ∙2.

7.26 . ( Magnetic constant ) - , 4π∙10-7 /.

7.27 . ( Magnetic polarization , magnetic moment density , intensity of magnetism ) - , . /.

7.28 . , ( Remanent magnetization , remanence , retentivity ) - (), .

7.29 . ( Coercive force ) - , , . , /.

7.30 . , ( Ferro - magnet , ferromagnetic , magnetic material ) - , .

. , , , . : - -.

7.31 . - ( Soft - magnetic material ) - , , ( 10 /), .

7.32 . - ( Hard - magnetic material ) - , , (10 / ), .

7.33 . , ( Magnetic hysteresis ) - .

7.34 . , ( Magnetic pole ) - , .

. , , , - .

7.35 . , ( Saturation magnetization ) - , , .

7.36 . ( Magnetic perception ) - , , , .

7.37 . ( Permeability ) - , .

7.38 . ( Absolute permeability ) - , , . (/).

7.39 . ( Concerning permeability , relative permeability ) - , , , .

7.40 . ( Static permeability ) - .

7.41 . ( Dynamic permeability ) - .

7.42 . ( Demagnetization factor ) - , , .

7.43 . ( Depth permeation of variable magnetic field ) - , ( 2,86 ).

7.44 . , - ( Skin effect ) - .

7.45 . ( Signal of magnetic transducer ) - (, ), .

7.46 . - , - ( Ratio signal - noise ) - , , , .

7.47 . ( Discontinuity of object magnetic particle nondestructive inspection ) - , , .

. :

, , - , , , , , , ..;

- , , , , , (, , .);

, , - , -, , .., - , - .

7.48 . ( Subsurface discontinuity ) - , .

7.49 . ( Near surface discontinuity ) - , .

. , , , .

7.50 . ( Width of discontinuity ) - .

7.5 1 . ( Magnetic field of discontinuity ) - , , .

7.52 . , ( Flux leakage field , magnetic dispersion ) - , .

7.53 . , ( Model of discontinuity , pattern of discontinuity ) - , , .

7.54 . ( Area non - sedimentation of magnetic particles ) - , , - .

7.55 . ( Technology , technique of magnetic particle nondestructive inspection ) - , , , .

7.56 . ( Technological instruction manual of magnetic particle nondestructive inspection ) - , , , , , , , .

. , :

( , , );

, ;

;

;

;

, ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

( , ..).

(, , ), , , , .

7.57 . ( Method , procedure , technique of magnetic particle nondestructive inspection ) - , , , , .

. , , , .

7.58 . , ( Technological card of magnetic particle nondestructive inspection ) - , , , , , .

. , , , .

7.59 . , ( Operation of magnetic particle nondestructive inspection ) - , .

. : ; ; ; ; ; .

7.60 . , ( Sensitivity of magnetic nondestructive testing ) - , .

7.61 . , ( Threshold of sensitivity magnetic nondestructive testing ) - , 0,95 .

. : , . , , , .

7.62 . ( Sensitivity of magnetic transducer ) - .

7.63 . , ( Threshold of reaction of means magnetic nondestructive testing ) - , , .

7.64 . , ( Area of magnetic nondestructive testing ) - , , .

7.65 . , ( Area of magnetic nondestructive testing ) - , , .

7.66 . , ( Up state of means magnetic nondestructive testing , up state , performance capability ) - , , , , - () .

7.67 . , ( Down state of means magnetic nondestructive testing , down state ) - , , , , - () , .

7.68 . , ( Controllability of an object ) - , .

. , , , , , - .

7.69 . ( Magnetic covering , magnetic coating ) - , - , .

7.70 . ( Nonmagnetic covering , dismagnetic coating ) - , - , .

7.71 . ( Nonconducting covering , disconducting coating ) - , .

7.72 . ( Elongation , lengthening , prolongation ) - .

. 3-5 .

7.73 . , ( Residual technique ) - , .

7.74 . , ( Applied technique ) - , .

7.75 . ( Nondestructive testing magnetic instrument ) - , .

7.76 . ( Magnetic thickness meter ) - , .

7.77 . ( Magnetic structure meter ) - , - , .

7.78 . ( Nondestructive testing inductive instrument ) - , .

7.79 . ( Nondestructive testing flux - gate meter instrument ) - , .

7.80 . ( Nondestructive testing magnetic resistance Instrument ) - , .

7.81 . ( Nondestructive testing magnetic half - conducting instrument ) - , .

7.82 . ( Recording magnitometer ) - , .

7.83 . ( Pandemotor nondestructive testing instrument ) - .

7.84 . ( Nondestructive testing magnetic effect Holl instrument ) - , .

7.85 . ( Nondestructive testing magnetic particle instrument ) - , .

. . :

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

, ;

.

7.86 . ( Standing nondestructive testing magnetic instrument ) - , , , ..

7.87 . ( Traveling nondestructive testing magnetic instrument ) - , , , , ..

7.88 . [ Portable ( transferable ) nondestructive testing magnetic instrument ] - , , .

. , , , .

7.89 . [ Magnetization arrangement ( equipment , installation , mechanism )] - , .

7.90 . ( Demagnetizer ) - , , , .

7.91 . ( Reproducer , reproducing of recording magnitometer ) - , .

7.92 . ( Read out of recording magnitometer ) - , , .

7.93 . ( Test system ) - , .

7.94 . , ( Arrangement for laying magnetic suspension ) - , , , , , .

7.95 . , ( Contact head ) - , ( ) ( ).

7.96 . ( Magnetic transducer ) - , () .

7.97 . ( Magnetic superposition transducer ) - , , .

7.98 . ( Magnetic passable transducer ) - , , , , .

7.99 . ( Solenoid , magnetic coil ) - , , .

7.100 . ( Standing solenoid ) - , .

7.101 . ( Traveling solenoid ) - , , .

7.102 . ( Magnetic bridge , magnet core , magnetic circuit , magnetic conductor ) - , .

7.103 . , ( Magnetic yoke ) - , , , .

7.104 . ( Nonmagnetic chink ) - .

7.105 . ( Permanent magnet ) - , .

7.106 . ( Electromagnet , solenoid magnet ) - - , , , , .

7.107 . ( Cable ) - , .

7.108 . , ( Central conductor ) - , , .

7.109 . , ( Electrical contact , contactor , electric feeler ) - .

7.110 . ( Winding )- , , .

7.1 11 . ( Coil , reel ) - , , .

7.112 . ( Toroidal coil ) - , , .

7.113 . ( Core ) - , .

7.114 . ( Magnetic screen ) - , , , , .

7.115 . ( Ferrometer ) - .

7.116 . ( Magnetic field strength meter ) - , .

7.117 . , ( Measuring device of magnetic density ) - , , .

. , , , , .

7.118 . ( Measuring device demagnetion ) - , .

7.119 . , ( Concentration meter magnetic suspension ) - .

7.120 . ( Measuring device of sensibility magnetic field indicator ) - , () , , .

7.121 . , - ( Ultraviolet lamp , UV - raying ) - , 315-400 365 , , .

7.122 . , ( Elongator ) - , , ( 3-5) .

7.123 . ( Test piece , test specimen ) - ( ) , , .

7.124 . , ( Standard test piece , standard test specimen ) - , , , , , .

7.125 . , ( Government standard test piece , government standard test specimen ) - , , , , .

7.126 . ( Magnetogram , magnetic seismogram , magnetically recorded seismogram ) - , .

7.127 . ( Automatic arrangement discovery of defects and analyze for portrayal ) - , , .

. , , , , , , , .

7.128 . ( Magnetic field indicator ) - , , , .

7.129 . , ( Magnetic particles , powder ) - - , - , , , .

7.130 . , ( Colour particles , bloom particles , flower particles ) - , , , , , .

7.131 . ( Magnetic particles black ) - , .

7.132 . ( Magnetic particles coloured ) - , , .

7.133 . ( Fluorescent magnetic particles ) - , , 315-400 .

7.134 . , ( Magnetic suspension ) - - , - .

7.135 . , ( centrat of magnetic suspension , magnetic paste , magnetic concentrate ) - , , , , .

7.136 . ( Magnetogum paste , magnetic high - molecular substance paste ) - , , , .

7.137 . ( Carrier fluid magnetic suspension , vehicle ) - , , , - .

. , , , .

7.138 . ( Solvent of magnetic high - molecular substance paste ) - , , , , .

7.139 . ( Colour for background , dye for background ) - , , .

7.140 . ( Component of magnetic suspension ) - : , , - .

7.141 . - , ( Surface - active substance ) - , .

. , , , .

7.142 . ( Stabilizer of magnetic suspension , stabilizing agent of magnetic suspension ) - - , , .

7.143 . ( Wetting agent ) - - , , , .

7.144 . ( Foam breaker , foam killer , froth suppressor ) - - , , .

7.145 . ( Furring of magnetic particles ) - (--) .

7.146 . ( Magnetic furring of magnetic particles ) - , , .

7.147 . , ( Dispersity of magnetic particles ) - , , .

7.148 . [ Form ( shape ) magnetic particles ] - , .

. :

( 1,0 1,2);

( 1,2 2,0);

( 2,0 5,0 , );

( 5,0 25,0);

( 25,0).

7.149 . - ( Magneto - weight test magnetic particles , magnetoweight trial magnetic particles ) - , , .

7.150 . , [ Sensitivity of magnetic indicator in magnetic field of discontinuity , indicative ability ( capability , faculty , power )] - , .

7.151 . ( Intensity fluorescence of magnetic particles ) - , .

7.152 . ( Temperature stability of magnetic particles , temperature resistance of magnetic particles ) - .

7.153 . ( Exploitation stability of magnetic particles , exploitation resistance of magnetic particles ) - .

7.154 . ( Stability of magnetic particles at storage ) - .

7.1 55 . ( Damping ability of carrier fluid magnetic suspension ) - .

7.156 . ( Exploitation stability magnetic suspension ) - .

7.157 . ( Sedimentation stability magnetic suspension ) - .

7.158 . ( Stability magnetic suspension against foam formation , stability magnetic suspension against frothing ) - .

7.159 . ( Mechanical clearing , mechanical purging ) - , , , .

7.160 . ( Clearing for steam , purging for steam ) - .

7.161 . ( Clearing for solvent , purging for solvent ) - , .

7.162 . ( Chemical clearing ) - , .

7.163 . ( Electrochemical clearing ) - .

7.164 . ( Ultrasonic clearing ) - , .

7.165 . - ( Anodoultrasonic clearing ) - .

7.166 . ( Heating clearing ) - , .

7.167 . ( Sorbenting clearing ) - , , , , .

7.168 . , ( Magnetization , magnetizing ) - .

7.169 . ( Local magnetization ) - , .

7.170 . ( Regime magnetization ) - , , , .

7.171 . ( Magnetizing current ) - , , - , .

7.172 . ( Circular magnetization ) - , .

7.173 . ( Toroidal magnetization ) - , .

7.174 . ( Polar magnetization ) - , .

7.175 . ( Longitudinal magnetization ) - , .

7.176 . ( Transverse magnetization ) - , .

7.177 . ( Normal magnetization , perpendicular magnetization ) - , .

7.178 . ( Inductive circular magnetization ) - , .

7.179 . [ Magnetization in rotatory ( rotary , rotational ) magnetic field ] - , .

7.180 . ( Magnetization magnetic contact ) - .

7.181 . ( Impulsive magnetization ) - , .

7.182 . ( Multidirectional magnetization ) - , .

7.183 . ( Dry technique , indicate of defects dry magnetic particles ) - , .

7.184 . ( Indicate of defects air sol magnetic particles ) - ( 0,1 - 10 ) , .

7.185 . ( Indicate of defects magnetic suspension ) - , .

7.186 . ( Indicate of defects of magnetogum paste ) - , .

7.187 . ( Laying of spraying , laying of sputtering ) - , .

7.188 . ( Laying of air sol ) - , , .

7.189 . ( Laying of Immersion , laying of sinking ) - .

7.190 . ( Laying of pour over ) - .

7.191 . ( Laying of brush ) - , .

7.192 . ( Laying of spade , laying of shaper ) - .

7.193 . ( Laying of scatter ) - ( 0,05-2 ) , ..

,

7.194 . ( Haw indications , indicating pictorial representation of defect ) - , , .

7.195 . ( Visibility of indicating pictorial representation of defect , visibility flaw indications ) - , , , , .

7.196 . ( Indications of flaw indications , signs of indicated pictorial representation ) - , .

. , , , , , , .

7.197 . ( Contrast of flaw indications ) - .

7.198 . [ Extent ( spread , length ) of defect ] - , .

7.199 . ( Background flaw indications ) - , , , .

7.200 . ( Indicate of defect ) - .

7.201 . ( Discovery of flaw in dications ) - .

7.202 . ( Discovery of flaw indications naked eye ) - .

7.203 . ( Automatic discovery of defects and analyze for portrayal ) - , .

7.204 . ( Scan , scanning ) - , , .

7.205 . ( Dissection flaw indications ) - , - , , .

7.206 . ( Distinction of defect , interpretation ) - , , , .

7.207 . ( Appraisal of result control , estimation of result check , technical diagnosis , assessment ) - .

7.208 . [ Actual ( real ) defect )] - , .

7.209 . , [ False indications , false ( falsehood ) defects ] - , , , , .

. , , , .

7.210 . ( Demagnetization , magnetic neutralization ) - , .

7.211 . [ Demagnetization removal ( extraction ) of object control ] - .

7.212 . [ Demagnetization magnetic field reduce ( Reduction ) strength ] - .

7.213 . ( Demagnetization alternating current ) - , , , .

7.214 . ( Demagnetization impulsive magnetic field ) - .

7.215 . [ Demagnetization counter ( opposite ) magnetic field ] - , .

7

( Absolute permeability ) 7.38

(Furring of magnetic particles) 7.145

(Automatic discovery of defects and analyze for portrayal) 7.203

(Automatic arrangement discovery of defects

and analyze for portrayal) 7.127

(Dissection flaw indications) 7.205

- (Anodoultrasonic clearing) 7.165

(Visibility of indicating pictorial representation of defect, visibility

flaw indications) 7.195

(Discovery of flaw indications naked eye) 7.202

(Reproducer, reproducing of recording magnitometer) 7.91

(Indicate of defect) 7.200

(Indicate of defects magnetic suspension) 7.185

(Indicate of defects of magnetogum paste) 7.186

(Indicate of defects air sol magnetic particles) 7.184

(Dry technique, indicate of defects dry magnetic particles) 7.183

(Depth permeation of variable magnetic field) 7.43

, (Government standard test piece,

government standard test specimen) 7.125

(Gradient magnetic field strength) 7.22

[ Actual ( real ) defect ] 7.208

(Damping ability of carrier fluid magnetic suspension) 7.155

(Discontinuity of object magnetic particle nondestructive inspection) 7.47

(Subsurface discontinuity) 7.48

(Near surface discontinuity) 7.49

(Magnetogram, magnetic seismogram,

magnetically recorded seismogram) 7.126

(Nondestructive testing magnetic effect Holl instrument) 7.84

(Pandemotor nondestructive testing instrument) 7.83

( Dynamic permeability ) 7.41

(Carrier fluid magnetic suspension, vehicle) 7.137

,

(Dispersity of magnetic particles) 7.147

,

(Area of magnetic nondestructive testing) 7.65

,

(Area of magnetic nondestructive testing) 7.64

(Area non-sedimentation of magnetic particles) 7.54

,

(Measuring device of magnetic density) 7.117

(Magnetic field strength meter) 7.116

(Measuring device demagnetion) 7.118

,

(Concentration meter magnetic suspension) 7.119

(Measuring device of sensibility

magnetic field indicator) 7.120

(Impulsive magnetization) 7.181

(Flaw indications, indicating

pictorial representation of defect) 7.194

(Inductive circular magnetization) 7.178

(Nondestructive testing inductive instrument) 7.78

(Intensity fluorescence of magnetic particles) 7.151

(Cable) 7.107

(Coil, reel) 7.111

(Multidirectional magnetization) 7.182

(Component of magnetic suspension) 7.140

, ( Contact head ) 7.95

(Contrast of flaw indications) 7.197

(Test piece, test specimen) 7.123

,

(Concentrat of magnetic suspension, magnetic paste, magnetic concentrate) 7.135

(Coercive force) 7.29

(Colour for background, dye for background) 7.139

, [False indications, false

(falsehood) defects] 7.209

(Fluorescent magnetic particles) 7.133

(Magnetic perception) 7.36

(Magnetic defectometer nondestructive testing) 7.12

( Magnetic density ) 7.18

(Magnetic furring of magnetic particles) 7.146

(Magnetic constant) 7.26

(Permeability) 7.37

, (Magnetic suspension) 7.134

( Magnetic energy ) 7.17

-

(Magnetoweight test magnetic particles, magnetoweight

trial magnetic particles) 7.149

( Magnetic covering ,

magnetic coating) 7.69

(Magnetic field) 7.13

(Magnetic field of discontinuity) 7.51

(Magnetic lines of force) 7.20

, ( Magnetic hysteresis ) 7.33

(Nondestructive testing magnetic instrument) 7.75

(Magnetic field indicator) 7.128

( Magnetic inductive

nondestructive testing) 7.2

(Magnetic effect

Holl nondestructive testing) 7.4

(Magnetic moment of locking plain coil) 7.25

(Magnetic nondestructive testing) 7.1

, (Magnetic pole) 7.34

(Pandemotor nondestructive testing) 7.6

( Magnetic flux ) 7.19

( Magnetic transducer ) 7.96

(Magnetic structure meter) 7.77

(Magnetic thickness meter) 7.76

(Magnetic flux-gate meter nondestructive testing) 7.3

(Magnetic screen) 7.114

( Recording magnitometer ) 7.82

( Magnetographic method ) 7.5

(Magnetogum paste, magnetic

high-molecular substance paste) 7.136

- (Hard-magnetic material) 7.32

- (Soft-magnetic material) 7.31

(Nondestructive

testing magnetic half-conducting instrument) 7.81

( Magnetic half - conducting

nondestructive testing) 7.8

(Magnetic particle examination) 7.10

( Magnetic structure

supervision particle examination) 7.11

(Nondestructive testing magnetic

particle instrument) 7.85

(Magnetic particle

nondestructive inspection, magnetic particle examination) 7.9

(Magnetic bridge, magnet core, magnetic circuit,

magnetic conductor) 7.102

(Nondestructive testing

magnetic resistance instrument) 7.80

( Magnetic resistance

nondestructive testing) 7.7

(Method, procedure,

technique of magnetic particle nondestructive inspection) 7.57

(Mechanical clearing, mechanical purging) 7.159

, (Model of discontinuity,

pattern of discontinuity) 7.53

( Magnetic superposition

transducer) 7.97

(Magnetic polarization, magnetic moment density,

intensity of magnetism) 7.27

[Magnetization in rotatory (rotary, rotational) magnetic field] 7.179

( Local magnetization ) 7.169

,

( Magnetization , magnetizing ) 7.168

(Magnetization magnetic contact) 7.180

(Magnetizing magnetic field) 7.14

[Magnetization arrangement

(equipment, installation, mechanism)] 7.89

(Magnetizing current) 7.171

( Laying of air sol ) 7.188

(Laying of brush) 7.191

(Laying of immersion, laying of sinking) 7.189

(Laying of pour over) 7.190

(Laying of scatter) 7.193

(Laying of spraying, laying of sputtering) 7.187

(Laying of spade, laying of shaper) 7.192

( Magnetic field strength ) 7.21

(Nonmagnetic covering, dismagnetic coating) 7.70

(Nonmagnetic chink) 7.104

, (Down state of means magnetic

nondestructive testing, down state) 7.67

(Non-conducting covering, disconducting coating) 7.71

[Normal (perpendicular) component magnetic field strength] 7.23

(Normal magnetization, perpendicular

magnetization) 7.177

(Winding) 7.110

( Discovery of flaw indications ) 7.201

,

(Operation of magnetic particle

nondestructive inspection) 7.59

,

(Remanent magnetization, remanence, retentivity) 7.28

( Residual magnetic field ) 7.16

( Concerning

permeability, relative permeability) 7.39

- ,

- (Ratio signal-noise) 7.46

(Appraisal of result control, estimation

of result check, technical diagnosis, assessment) 7.207

(Clearing for steam, purging for steam) 7.160

(Foam breaker, foam killer, froth suppressor) 7.144

( Traveling

nondestructive testing magnetic instrument) 7.87

(Traveling solenoid) 7.101

[Portable (transferable)

nondestructive testing magnetic instrument] 7.88

- , ( Surface - active substance ) 7.141

, - ( Skin effect ) 7.44

, ( Flux leakage field , magnetic

dispersion) 7.52

(Polar magnetization) 7.174

( Transverse magnetization ) 7.176

,

(Threshold of reaction of means magnetic nondestructive testing) 7.63

,

(Threshold of sensitivity magnetic nondestructive testing) 7.61

(Permanent magnet) 7.105

(Indications of flaw

indications, signs of indicated pictorial representation) 7.196

( Applied magnetic field ) 7.15

, (Controllability of an object) 7.68

(Standing solenoid) 7.100

(Longitudinal magnetization) 7.175

[Extent (spread, length) of defect] 7.198

( Magnetic passable transducer ) 7.98

, (Up state of means magnetic nondestructive

testing, up state, performance capability) 7.66

(Demagnetization, magnetic neutralization) 7.210

[ Demagnetization

counter (opposite) magnetic field] 7.215

( Demagnetization

impulsive magnetic field) 7.214

[Demagnetization magnetic field reduce (reduction) strength] 7.212

(Demagnetization alternating current) 7.213

[Demagnetization removal (extraction) of object control] 7.211

( Demagnetizer ) 7.90

(Demagnetization factor) 7.42

(Width of discontinuity) 7.50

(Distinction of defect, interpretation) 7.206

(Solvent of magnetic high-molecular

substance paste) 7.138

(Clearing for solvent, purging for solvent) 7.161

( Regime magnetization ) 7.170

, (Electrical contact, contactor,

electric feeler) 7.109

( Sedimentation

stability magnetic suspension) 7.157

(Core) 7.113

(Signal of magnetic transducer) 7.45

( Test system ) 7.93

(Scan, scanning) 7.204

(Wetting agent) 7.143

(Solenoid, magnetic coil) 7.99

(Sorbenting clearing) 7.167

, ( Residual technique ) 7.73

, ( Applied technique ) 7.74

(Stabilizer of magnetic suspension,

stabilizing agent of magnetic suspension) 7.142

,

(Standard test piece, standard test specimen) 7.124

( Static permeability ) 7.40

( Standing

nondestructive testing magnetic instrument) 7.86

, ( Central conductor ) 7.108

( Stability of

magnetic particles at storage) 7.154

(Stability magnetic suspension against foam formation, against frothing) 7.158

(Read out of recording magnitometer) 7.92

(Tangential component magnetic field strength) 7.24

( Temperature stability

of magnetic particles, temperature resistance of magnetic particles) 7.152

(Heating clearing) 7.166

,

(Saturation magnetization) 7.35

(Technological instruction manual of magnetic particle nondestructive

inspection ) 7.56

,

(Technological card of magnetic particle

nondestructive inspection) 7.58

(Technology, technique of

magnetic particle nondestructive inspection) 7.55

( Toroidal coil ) 7.112

( Toroidal magnetization ) 7.173

(Elongation, lengthening, prolongation) 7.72

, ( Elongator ) 7.122

( Ultrasonic clearing ) 7.164

, - ( Ultraviolet lamp ,

UV - raying ) 7.121

, ( Arrangement for

laying magnetic suspension) 7.94

(Ferrometer) 7.115

(Nondestructive testing flux-gate meter

instrument ) 7.79

, ( Ferromagnet ,

ferromagnetic, magnetic material) 7.30

, ( Magnetic

particles, powder) 7.129

(Background flaw indications) 7.199

[Form (shape) magnetic particles] 7.148

(Chemical clearing) 7.162

, ( Colour particles , bloom

particles, flower particles) 7.130

(Magnetic particles coloured) 7.132

(Circular magnetization) 7.172

( Magnetic particles black ) 7.131

(Sensitivity of magnetic transducer) 7.62

, [ Sensitivity

of magnetic indicator in magnetic field of discontinuity, indicative

ability (capability, faculty, power)] 7.150

,

(Sensitivity of magnetic nondestructive testing) 7.60

( Exploitation

stability magnetic suspension) 7.156

( Exploitation stability

of magnetic particles, exploitation resistance of magnetic particles) 7.153

(Electromagnet, solenoid magnet) 7.106

(Electrochemical clearing) 7.163

, (Magnetic yoke) 7.103

8 . ()

8.1 . ( Leak tightness ) - , () .

8.2 . ( Leak ) - , .

8.3 . ( Global hermeticity ) - , .

8.4 . ( Allowable leak rate ) - , - .

8.5 . ( Inleakage ) - .

8.6 . ( Leakage ) - .

8.7 . ( Leak testing ) - .

8.8 . ( Leak testing technigue ) - , , .

8.9 . ( Leak locating ) - () .

8.10 . ( Obstruction of leak ) - .

8.11 . ( Leak tightness testing ) - .

8.12 . ( Leak tightness control ) - .

8.13 . ( Operating fluid ) - , .

8.14 . ( Tracer fluid ) - , .

8.15 . ( Test fluid ) - , .

8.16 . ( Ballasting fluid ) - , .

8.17 . - ( Carier fluid ) - , .

8.18 . ( Indicating material ) - , .

8.19 . ( Indikator means ) - , , () .

8.20 . ( Pressurization ) - () .

8.21 . ( Total inleakage ) - .

8.22 . ( Volume flow ) - , .

8.23 . ( How gas ) - , .

8.24 . ( Minimum detected leak ) - , .

8.25 . ( Evolution of gas ) - .

8.26 . ( Dinamik ) - , , , .

8. 27 . ( Throttling ) - ( , - ) .

8.28 . ( Drift ) - , .

8.29 . ( Overlapping ) - , .

8.30 . ( Connterflow ) - - , , .

8.31 . ( Flooded ) - , , .

8.32 . ( Masking ) - , .

8.33 . ( Leak detector ) - .

8.34 . Mac - ( Mass spectrometer leak detector ) - , .

8.35 . ( Halogen leak detector ) - , .

8.36 . ( Thermal conductivity leak detector ) - , .

8.37 . - ( Electron capture leak detector ) - , , .

8.38 . - , , .

8.39 . ( Leak detector with pressure gange ) - , .

8.40 . ( Electron discharge leak detector ) - , .

8.41 . ( Radioactive leak detector ) - , .

8.42 . ( Acoustic leak detector ) - , , .

. .

8.43 . ( Calibrated leak ) - , .

8.44 . ( Gas spray probe ) - .

8.45 . ( Sniffer ) - .

8.46 . - ( Capillary fuler - probe ) - , .

8.47 . ( Vacuum sucking disk ) - , .

8.48 . ( Local vacuum chamber ) - , .

8.49 . ( Local chamber of externaf pressure ) - , .

8.50 . ( Fore line ) - .

8.51 . ( Inlet ) - -.

8.52 . ( Ion source ) - , .

8.53 . ( Collector of ion ) , .

8.54 . ( Fluctuation of flare ) - . .

8.55 . ( Minimum reliable flare of leakdetector ) - , .

8.56 . ( Sensitivity of leak ) - .

8.57 . ( Sensitivity limit of testing method ) - , .

8.58 . ( Sensitivity of leak detector ) - .

8.59 . ( Leak detecting sensitivity limit ) - , .

8.60 . ( Time constant of leak ) - , .

8.61 . ( Fast operation ) - .

8.62 . ( Method of leak testing ) - , .

8.63 . ( Process of leak testing ) - .

8.64 . ( Process of spray ) - , .

8.65 . ( Process of chamber bag ) - , , .

8.66 . ( Process of vacuum chamber ) - , , , .

8.67 . ( Process of sniffer ) - , .

8.68 . ( Process of sucher ) - , , .

8.69 . ( Process of accumulation in atmosphere pressure ) - , , , () .

8.70 . ( Process of accumulation in vacuum ) - , ( , ) , , ( ) . .

8

( Acoustic leak detector ) 8.42

( Ballasting fluid ) 8.16

(Fast operation) 8.61

(Vacuum sucking disk) 8.47

- ( Carier fluid ) 8.17

( Inlet ) 8.51

(Evolution of gas) 8.25

(Halogen leak detector) 8.35

(Leak tightness) 8.1

( Dinamik ) 8.26

( Drift ) 8.28

( Throttling ) 8.27

(Indicating material) 8.18

( Indikator means ) 8.19

( Ion source ) 8.52

( Leak tightness testing ) 8.11

( Calibrated leak ) 8.43

- ( Capillary fuler - probe ) 8.46

(Thermal conductivity leak detector) 8.36

(Collector of ion) 8.53

( Leak tightness control ) 8.12

( Test fluid ) 8.15

( Leak locating ) 8.9

(Leak detector with pressure gange) 8.39

(Masking) 8.32

M ace- (Mass spectrometer leak detector) 8.34

(Local vacuum chamber) 8.48

(Local chamber of external pressure) 8.49

(Method of leak testing) 8.62

( Minimum detected leak ) 8.24

(Minimum reliable flare of leakdetector) 8.55

( Inleakage ) 8.5

( Allowable leak rate ) 8.4

(Gas spray probe) 8.44

( Volume flow ) 8.22

(Pressurization) 8.20

(Obstruction of leak) 8.10

( Overlapping ) 8.29

( Flooded ) 8.31

8.38

( Sensitivity limit of testing method ) 8.57

( Leak detecting sensitivity limit ) 8.59

( Time constant of leak ) 8.60

( Flow gas ) 8.23

( Tracer fluid ) 8.14

( Operating fluid ) 8.13

( Radioactive leak detector ) 8.41

( Connterflow ) 8.30

(Process of vacuum chamber) 8.66

(Process of chamber bag) 8.65

(Process of accumulation in vacuum) 8.70

(Process of accumulation in atmosphere pressure) 8.69

(Process of spray) 8.64

(Process of sucher) 8.68

(Process of leak testing) 8.63

(Process of sniffer) 8.67

( Global hermeticity ) 8.3

( Total inleakage ) 8.21

(Leak testing technigue) 8.8

(Leak testing) 8.7

(Leak detector) 8.33

(Leak) 8.2

(Leakage) 8.6

(Fluctuation of flare) 8.54

( Fore line ) 8.50

( Sensitivity of leak ) 8.56

( Sensitivity of leak detector ) 8.58

( Sniffer ) 8.45

- ( Electron capture leak detector ) 8.37

( Electron discharge leak detector ) 8.40

9 . -

9.1 . ( Acoustic emission ) - , , [ 1 ]*.

. []* , , [], .

9.2 . ( Acoustic emission of material ) - , [ 1 ]*.

9.3 . [ () ] ( Acoustic emission leak detection ) - , () [ 1 ].

9.4 . ( Acoustic emission of friction ) - , [ 1 ].

9.5 . - ( Acoustic emission method ) - , , , [ 1 ]*.

9.6 . - ( Acousto - ultrasonics ) - , [ 2 ].

9.7 . ( signal ) - , [ 1 ]*.

9.8 . ( Acoustic signal of AE ) - , [ 1 ]*.

9.9 . ( Electric signal of AE ) - .

9.10 . ( Burst ) - , () [ 1 ]*.

9.11 . ( Continuous ) - , () [ 1 ]*.

9.12 . ( Source of ) - , - [ 1 ]*.

9.13 . ( Mechanism of AE generation ) - () , [ 1 ]*.

9.14 . - ( interference ) - , , [ 1 ].

9.15 . ( Backgroundnoise ) - , [ 1 ].

9.16 . ( Sensors thermal noise ) - , .

9.17 . ( Overshoot of AE signal ) - () [ 1 ]*.

9.18 . [ N ] ( Emission count ) - [ 1 ]*.

9.19 . [ ] ( Acoustic emission count rate ) - [ 1 ]*.

9.20 . ( Event ) - () [ 1 ]*.

9.21 . ( Acoustic emission impulse ) - , , .

. ASTM 1316 ( hit ) - . [ 1 ] - , , .

9.22 . [ N ] ( Event count ) - [ 1 ]*.

9.23 . [ ] ( Event count rate ) - [ 1 ]*.

. AE activity - ASTM 1316 .

9.24 . ( Force of AE source ) - , ( ) , .

9.25 . ( Relative force of AE source ) - , ( ) , .

9.26 . ( Intensity of AE ) - , , , . /2.

9.27 . ( Energy of AE ) - , , [ 1 ]*. , .

9.28 . ( Energy of AE source ) - , [ 1 ]*. c , .

9.29 . ( Signal amplitude ) - . , .

9.30 . ( Signal amplitude distribution ) - .

9.31 . ( Average signal level ) - , 1 . , .

9.32 . ( AE rms ) - , [ 2 ].

9.33 . - ( dB ) - , 1 . u .

. u =20 log 10 ( u 1 | u 0 ),

u 0 - , u 0 =1 ;

u 1 - .

:

0 1

20 10

40 100

60 1

80 10

100 100 .

9.34 ( Impulse amplitude distribution ) - , .

9.35 . , ( Distribution , amplitude , cumulative ) - , [ 2 ].

9.36 . , ( Distribution , differential amplitude ) - , dum [ 2 ].

. .

9.37 . ( signal start ) - , [ 2 ].

9.38 . ( signal end ) - , [ 2 ].

9.39 . ( signal rise time ) - , [ 2 ].

9.40 . ( impulse time decay ) - , , [ 2 ].

9.4 1 . ( impulse duration ) - .

. , , , , , - .

9.42 . ( Dead time ) - , , [ 2 ].

9.43 . ( Interval , arrival time ) - i - j - [ 2 ].

. - .

9.44 . ( Effective velocity ) - , - [ 2 ].

9.45 . ( Examination region ) - , () [ 2 ].

9.46 . ( source location ) - [ 2 ].

9.47 . ( Linear location ) - ( ) , [ 2 ].

9.48 . ( Planar location ) - [ 2 ].

. .

9.49 . (3D location ) - [ 2 ].

9.50 . ( Adaptive location ) - [ 2 ].

9.51 . ( Zone location ) - .

. : , , .

9.52 . ( Independent channel zone location ) - , , , [ 2 ]*.

9.53 . ( First - hit zone location ) - , [ 2 ]*.

9.54 . ( Arrival sequence zone location ) - , [ 2 ]*.

9.55 . ( Continuous AE signal location ) - [ 2 ].

. :

, ;

[ 2 ]*.

9.56 . ( Indication of AE event ) - , .

9.57 . ( Cluster location ) - , , [ 2 ]*.

9.58 . ( Location accuracy ) - , [ 2 ]*.

9.59 . ( Generelized parameter of stimulation ) - (, , ..), , [ 1 ]*.

9.60 . ( Stimulation ) - , , .. [ 2 ].

9.61 . ( Parametric activity ) - , - (, , ..) () [ 1 ].

9.62 . ( Classification of sources ) - (, , ) [ 1 ].

9.63 . ( Signature , acoustic emission ) - , () [ 1 ].

9.64 . ( Criterions of sources classification ) - , (, , ) [ 1 ].

9.65 . ( Criterion of sources parametric activity ) - , , [ 1 ].

9.66 . ( Classification parameter ) - , N :

N = aKn ,

- , [ 1 ].

9.67 . ( Nonactive AE source ) - , [ 1 ].

9.68 . ( Active AE source ) - , , 1 (<1) [ 1 ].

9.69 . ( Critically active AE source ) - , 1 6 (1<<6) [ 1 ].

9.70 . ( Catastrophic active AE source ) - , 6 (>6) [ 1 ].

9.7 1 . ( Kaiser effect ) - , [ 1 , 2 ]*.

9.72 . ( Felicity effect ) - , [ 2 ].

9.73 . ( Felicity ratio ) - , , [ 2 ].

9.74 . ( Maximum permissible condition of object under the AE indications ) - , , [ 1 ].

9.75 . - ( criterion of maximum permissible condition of object ) - , , - [ 1 ].

9.76 . ( Additional time of operation under the indications of ) - , [ 1 ].

9.77 . ( Sensor , acoustic emission ) - , [ 1 ]*.

9.78 . - ( Array ) - , [ 1 ].

9.79 . ( Couplant ) - , - [ 1 ].

9.80 . - ( Instrumentation ) - , , , [ 1 ].

9.81 . ( Instrumentation threshold ) - , , , () , () .

9.82 . ( Fixed threshold ) - , .

9.83 . ( Floating threshold ) - , .

9.84 . ( Programmed threshold ) - , , .

9.85 . ( Highest sensitivity of AE instrument ) - , .

9.86 . ( Processing speed ) - , ./.

9.87 . ( Processing capacity ) - , [ 2 ]*.

9.88 . ( Signal overload level ) - , , [ 2 ]*.

9.89 . ( Dynamic range ) - , , ( ), , , .

9.90 . - ( Channel , acoustic emission ) - , , , , , , , , [ 2 ]*.

9.91 . - ( Waveguide ) - , , . - , , - [ 2 ]*.

9.92 . ( Simulation of AE ) - , , .. - [ 2 ].

9.93 . ( Simulator of AE ) - , , [ 1 ].

9.94 . - ( Hsu - simulator of AE ) - , , , , .

9.95 . - ( Calibration of AE instrumentation ) - , () - [ 1 ].

9.96 . ( Special calibration block ) - .

9.97 . ( Calibration block ) - , .

9

(Adaptive location) 9.50

[ ] ( Event count rate ) 9.23

( Active AE source ) 9.68

- ( Acousto - ultrasonics ) 9.6

- ( Instrumentation ) 9.80

- ( dBAE ) 9.33

- ( Waveguide ) 9.91

- ( Channel , acoustic emission ) 9.90

-

(AE criterion of maximum permissible condition of object) 9.75

- (Acoustic emission method) 9.5

(Acoustic emission) 9.1

(Acoustic emission of material) 9.2

(Acoustic emission of friction) 9.4

[ () ]

(Acoustic emission leak detection) 9.3

( Acoustic signal of AE ) 9.8

(Signal amplitude) 9.29

(Impulse amplitude distribution) 9.34

(Signal amplitude distribution) 9.30

,

( Distribution , differential amplitude ) 9.36

,

(Distribution, amplitude, cumulative) 9.35

- ( Array ) 9.78

( signal rise time ) 9.39

( impulse time decay ) 9.40

( Overshoot of signal ) 9.17

( Dynamic range ) 9.89

( Burst ) 9.10

( impulse duration ) 9.41

(Additional time of operation under

the indications of ) 9.76

(Processing capacity) 9.87

(Zone location) 9.51

(Independent channel zone location) 9.52

(Arrival sequence zone location) 9.54

(First-hit zone location) 9.53

( Simulator of ) 9.93

(Simulation of ) 9.92

(Acoustic emission impulse) 9.21

(Indication of AE event) 9.56

( Intensity of ) 9.26

( Source of ) 9.12

-

(Calibration of AE instrumentation) 9.95

(Calibration block) 9.97

(Catastrophic active AE source) 9.70

(Classification of AE sources) 9.62

(AE signal end) 9.38

( Couplant ) 9.79

(Felicity ratio) 9.73

(Criterions of AE sources classification) 9.64

(Criterion of AE sources parametric activity) 9.65

(Critically active AE source) 9.69

(Linear location) 9.47

(Cluster location) 9.57

( source location) 9.46

(Continuous AE signal location) 9.55

(Special calibration block) 9.96

( Dead time ) 9.42

(Mechanism of AE generation) 9.13

( Stimulation ) 9.60

( AE signal start ) 9.37

( Continuous AE ) 9.11

(Examination region) 9.45

(Generelized parameter of stimulation) 9.59

( Signature , acoustic emission ) 9.63

(Relative force of AE source) 9.25

(Classification parameter) 9.66

(Parametric AE activity) 9.61

( Nonactive AE source ) 9.67

( Floating threshold ) 9.83

( Planar location ) 9.48

- ( AE interference ) 9.14

(Instrumentation threshold) 9.81

(Highest sensitivity of AE instrument) 9.85

(Maximum permissible condition

of object under the AE indications) 9.74

( Sensor , acoustic emission ) 9.77

( Programmed threshold ) 9.84

( Interval , arrival time ) 9.43

( AE signal ) 9.7

( Force of AE source ) 9.24

( Processing speed ) 9.86

[ ] ( Acoustic emission count rate ) 9.19

( Sensors thermal noise ) 9.16

( Event ) 9.20

( rms ) 9.32

- (Hsu-simulator of ) 9.94

[ N ] ( Emission count ) 9.18

(Location accuracy) 9.58

(3 D location ) 9.49

(Signal overload level) 9.88

(Average signal level) 9.31

( Fixed threshold ) 9.82

( Background noise ) 9.15

[ N ] ( Event count ) 9.22

( Electric signal of ) 9.9

( Energy of ) 9.27

( Energy of source ) 9.28

(Kaiser effect) 9.71

(Felicity effect) 9.72

( Effective velocity ) 9.44

9

1 . 27655-88 . . , . .: - , 1988.

2 . Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations. ASTM E 1316.

3 . ISO DOC 135/3 No.41 Nondestructive testing - Acoustic Emission - Vocabulary. ( Draft ).

10 . ,

10.1 . - , .

10.2 . - , .

10.3 . - , .

10 .4 . - , .

10.5 . - .

10.6 . - .

10.7 . - 1 1 .

. , .

10.8 . - , 1 380 .

10.9 . () - , , , ( ). 380-780 .

10.10 . - , , 1 .

10.1 1 . - .

10.12 . - .

10.13 . - , , .

10.14 . - , , .

10.15 . - , , .

10.16 . - , .

10.17 . - , , .

10.18 . - , , .

10.19 . - , , .

10.20 . - , , .

10.21 . - , .

10.22 . - , , .

10.23 . - , , .

10.24 . - , , .

10.25 . - , , , .

10.26 . - , , .

10.27 . - , .

10.28 . - , .

10.29 . - - , - .

10.30 . - , , .

10.31 . - - , - , .

10.32 . - , , .

10.33 . - , .

10.34 . - , .

10.35 . - , .

10.36 . - , .

10.37 . - , , .

10.38 . - - , - .

10.39 . - - , -, .

10.40 . - , , .

10.41 . - , , .

10.42 . - , , .

10.43 . - , , .

10.44 . - , .

10.45 . - , , , , .

. .

10.46 . - , .

10.47 . - , , .

10.48 . - , , .

. , .

10.49 . - , .

10.50 . - , () .

10.51 . - , () - .

10.52 . - , () .

10.53 . - .

10.54 . - , , .

10.55 . - , , .

10.56 . - , .

. .

10.57 . - .

10.58 . - .

10.59 . - .

10.60 . - .

10.61 . - .

10.62 . - .

10.63 . - .

10.64 . - , .

10.65 . - , .

10.66 . - .

10.67 . - , .

10.68 . - ( ), .

10.69 . - , .

10.70 . - .

10.71 . - .

. :

- 0,5 ( );

- 0,2 0,5 ( );

- 0,2 ( ).

10.72 . () - , ( ), , ; .

10.73 . - , , () , .

10.74 . n , %, - , :

,

ax Emin - , ;

- , .

10.75 . - , , , .

10.76 . - , , .

10.77 . - , ( ) ( ).

10.78 . - , , .

10.79 . - , , :

,

Lc - , /2;

ω - , ;

ω0 - ;

L - , /2.

. .

10.80 . - , :

=( S -1)1000,

S - , .

10.81 . - , .

10.82 . - , (, ) .

10.83 . - , .

10.84 . - , 0,8 .

10.85 . - , / , .

. :

- 0,4;

- , 0,2 0,4;

- , 0,2.

10.86 . - , , .

10.87 . - ( ), , , .

10.88 . - , , , .

10

10.28

10.20

10.66

10.67

() 10.9

10.12

- 10.29

10.4

10.21

10.22

10.44

10.26

10.68

10.2

10.25

10.10

10.46

10.57

10.19

10.70

10.69

10.11

10.71

10.6

() 10.72

3 10.73

, % 10.74

10.50

10.34

10.75

10.17

10.40

10.14

10.13

10.36

10.15

10.16

10.35

- 10.38

- 10.39

10.37

10.58

10.64

10.63

10.77

10.76

- 10.31

10.47

10.1

10.49

10.51

10.52

10.7

10.3

10.78

10.79

10.80

10.59

10.23

10.45

10.48

10.5

10.81

10.82

10.27

10.55

10.53

10.60

10.83

10.18

10.65

10.62

10.56

10.61

10.54

10.8

10.84

10.24

10.85

10.41

10.42

10.32

10.43

10.30

10.87

10.88

10.86

10.33

11 .

11.1 . ( Oscillation ) - - .

. 1. .

2 . , , .

11.2 . ( Mechanical oscillations ) - , .

11.3 . ( Vibration ) - , .

11.4 . , ( Vibration engineering ) - , , , .

11.5 . ( Vibration generator ) - , .

11.6 . , ( Vibration machine ) - , .

11.7 . ( Vibrometry ) - , .

11.8 . , ( Vibration protection ) - , .

. - , .

11.9 . , ( Vibration proper functioning ) - .

11.10 . , ( Vibration strength ) - .

11.11 . , ( Vibration testing ) - .

11.12 . ( Vibration diagnostics ) - , .

11.13 . ( Vibration displacement ) - , .

11.14 . ( Vibration velocity ) - .

11.15 . ( Vibration acceleration ) - .

11.16 . ( Rectilinear vibration ) - .

11.17 . ( Plane vibration ) - .

11.18 . ( Spase vibration ) - .

11.19 . ( Translational vibration ) - .

11.20 . ( Angular vibration ) - .

11.21 . , ( Peak - to - peak value ) .

11.22 . , ( Peak value ) - .

11.23 . , ( Mean value of modulus ) - .

. 1 ,

.

- ( t ), t 1 £ t £ t 2 ,

.

11.24 . , ( Root - mean - square value ) - .

. 1 ,

.

- x ( t ), t 1 £ t £ t 2 ,

.

11.25 . () ( Periodic oscillations ) - (), ( ) .

11.26 . (), ( Period ) - , () ( ).

11.27 . (), ( Frequency of periodic oscillations ) - , ().

11.28 . () ( Synchronous oscillations ) - (), .

11.29 . () ( Harmonic oscillations ) - (), ( )

A sin(ωt+φ),

t - ;

, ω, φ - ;

- ;

ω+φ - ;

j - ;

ω - .

11.30 . (), ( Amplitude ) - ( ) () (. 11.29).

11.31 . (), ( Phase ) - , ( ) () (. 11.29).

11.32 . (), ( Initial phase ) - () (. 29).

11.33 .